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Dry Eye Syndrome

Dry eye syndrome (computer visual syndrome) is a combination of pathologies associated with insufficient corneal moisture.

Dry eye syndrome affects 7–17% of the population in highly developed countries of the world, and over the past 30 years, the detection rate of this syndrome has increased 4.5 times.

The composition of the tears is quite complicated – it is not only salt water, it contains proteins, fats, and many electrolytes in its composition. Due to such a complex composition, a tear performs such important functions as:
– Protection of the cornea from the harmful effects of the environment
– Cornea nutrition
– Restoration of lesions on the surface of the cornea
– Fight against harmful microbes
– Preserving the transparency of the cornea

To implement all of the above functions, a tear should be produced in sufficient quantity and contain all the necessary organic substances and electrolytes.

Causes of Dry Eye Syndrome

– Reduced secretion of tears
1. Sjogren syndrome (an autoimmune disease leading to damage to the lacrimal glands)
2. Rheumatic diseases (rheumatoid arthritis, systemic lupus erythematosus, polymyositis, dermatomyositis)
3. Radiation exposure
4. Chronic hepatitis
5. Climacteric syndrome
6. Hypothyroidism
7. Pregnancy

– Increased tear evaporation
1. Rare blinking (especially when working at a computer)
2. The use of fans, heaters, air conditioners (accelerate the evaporation of tears)
3. Cosmetics
4. Smoke cigarettes, dusty air
5. Some medicines (diuretics, hormones, antidepressants, antiallergic drugs, oral contraceptives)
6. Wearing contact lenses

This is not a complete list of factors leading to the development of dry eye syndrome.

– burning sensation in the eyes
– photophobia
– increased eye sensitivity to wind, smoke, dust
– eye redness

Diagnostics

– Inspection of the cornea and conjunctiva under the microscope. In this study, surface defects of the cornea, superficial infection of the conjunctiva (its redness) are detected. Staining of the cornea (fluorescein) reveals invisible defects of the cornea.

– The study of the stability of the tear film. To do this, after instillation of the dye under a microscope, the appearance of tears on the surface of the tear film is monitored. The test is positive if the breaks appear earlier than should be normal.

– Studies of the rate of production of tears. For this purpose, special test strips are used, which are painted (like litmus paper) upon contact with a tear. For the study, the strips are laid with the tips in the lower conjunctival fornix, the patient closes his eyes. After 5 minutes, the activity of tear production is assessed by the volume of staining of the test strip.

– At first, you can restrict yourself to following the rules for working at a computer:
1. Interrupt computer work for 10 minutes. every 45 minutes
2. Often pay attention to blinking
3. Do not work at the computer for more than 4 hours a day.
4. The ideal distance from the monitor to the eyes 50-70 cm

– At the moment, artificial tear substitutes are widespread. They differ in composition, consistency, in the presence of preservatives, in the stability of the film produced. Preparations with a more viscous and thick consistency: Carbomer (Oftagel, Vidisik), Sisteyn – require more rare instillation, but create more discomfort at the moment of instillation. There are tear substitutes with a minimum content of preservatives (Oxial), they are less likely to cause irritation and allergic reactions of the eyes. The selection of these drugs is made individually and subjectively – the patient chooses the drug the use of which is most convenient for him.

– In the case when these funds do not compensate for the lack of tears, they perform an operation for blocking the tears.

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