Electrophoresis – the definition and physical essence of the process
Medical procedure – medicinal electrophoresis
Electrophoresis, as a medical procedure, is also called iontophoresis, ion therapy, ion galvanization, or galvano-ion therapy, all of which mean the same process. Applied to medical practice, electrophoresis is an electrotherapy method that is based on the effects of direct current and the effects of drugs delivered using the same current. Delivery of various medications using this method is called medicinal electrophoresis. Today, several types of electrophoresis are used in medical practice, in which various electrical currents are used.
For drug delivery using electrophoresis, the following currents are used:
one. Direct current (galvanic).
2 Diadynamic currents.
3 Sinusoidal modulated currents.
four. Fluctuating currents.
five. Rectified current.
Principle of action of drug electrophoresis
Electrophoresis is based on electrolytic dissociation. The chemical substance that is a medicine breaks down into ions in an aqueous solution. When an electric current is passed through a solution with a medicine, the drug ions begin to move, penetrate the skin, mucous membranes, and enter the human body.
The drug ions penetrate the tissues mostly through the sweat glands, but a small volume can pass through the sebaceous glands. The medicinal substance after penetration into the tissue through the skin is evenly distributed in the cells and intercellular fluid. Electrophoresis allows you to deliver the drug in the shallow layers of the skin – the epidermis and dermis, from where it can be absorbed into the blood and lymph through microvessels. Once in the bloodstream and lymph flow, the drug is delivered to all organs and tissues, but the maximum concentration is maintained in the area of drug administration.
The amount of drug that can be sucked into the tissue from the solution during the electrophoresis procedure depends on many factors.
The main factors affecting the degree of absorption of the drug upon delivery by electrophoresis:
- degree of dissociation
- ion size and charge
- solvent properties
- concentration of substance in solution
- current density
- procedure duration
- person’s age
- skin condition
- general condition of the body.
Medicinal effects of medicinal electrophoresis
A drug delivered to the body by electrophoresis has several mechanisms:
one. Reflex mechanism (ionic reflexes).
2 Humoral (systemic) mechanism.
3 Local mechanism.
The reflex component of the therapeutic effect of the drug is formed through indirect effects. The humoral component has a systemic effect due to the penetration of the drug into the bloodstream and lymph flow, and the effect on many organs and tissues. The local effect of electrophoresis is due to the high concentration of the drug at the injection site.
Electrophoresis has the following therapeutic effects:
- anti-inflammatory – anode
- dehydrating (facilitates the release of fluid from the tissues and edema immediately) – anode
- anesthetic – anode
- soothing – anode
- vasodilator – cathode
- relaxing (especially muscle) – cathode
- normalization of metabolism, nutrition of organs and tissues – cathode
- secretory (production and release into the blood of biologically active substances) – the cathode.
The advantages of electrophoresis over methods of drug administration through
mouth, intravenously or intramuscularly
Scope of electrophoresis
The scope of application of medicinal electrophoresis is very wide. The method is used not only as a medical procedure, but also as a preventive one. Diseases of the nervous and respiratory systems, surgical, gynecological, ear, eye, nose and other, can be cured by using complex treatment with the inclusion of electrophoresis procedures.
The main indications for the use of electrophoresis:
- pathology of the cardiovascular system (calcium solutions)
- atherosclerosis (solutions of iodine, novocaine)
- hypertension (solutions of bromine, caffeine, magnesia, potassium, iodine, novocaine)
- scars formed after surgical interventions, injuries or inflammations (iodine solutions, lidazy, ronidazy)
- cords of connective tissue, including adhesions (iodine solutions, lidazy, ronidazy)
- keloid scars (solutions of iodine, lidazy, ronidazy)
- Duputrien’s contracture (iodine, lidazy, ronidase solutions)
- burns (solutions of iodine, lidaz, ronidazy)
- pathology of joints and bones – arthritis, polyarthritis, spinal osteochondrosis, ankylosing spondylitis (salicylates solutions)
- eye pathology
- pathology of upper respiratory tract (tonsillitis, sinusitis, otitis media, etc.)
- chronic low-intensity inflammations of the female genital organs – endocervicitis, endometriosis, colpitis, endometritis, cervical erosion (solutions of antibiotics, for example, tetracycline)
- inflammatory diseases of the urinary organs – prostatitis, cystitis, pyelonephritis, etc.
- chronic bronchitis (antibiotic solutions)
- pathology of the nervous system – neuritis, radiculitis, plexitis, neuralgia (Novocain)
- spinal cord or brain injury
- sleep disorders
- pathology of the digestive system (gastritis, gastric and duodenal ulcer, cholecystitis, hepatitis, colitis)
- inflammatory diseases of the oral cavity and teeth – stomatitis.
In the treatment of bruises, tears and sprains, edema, purulent inflammation, pain syndrome, trophic ulcers, it is better to use solutions of drugs prepared in pharmacy Dimexide, and not distilled water.
Electrophoresis therapy is used as part of complex treatment of severe pathologies with a long course. Electrophoresis cannot be considered as a panacea or an isolated method that guarantees complete recovery from a chronic pathological process. This method should be used in combination with other medical procedures, including taking medication.
Drug electrophoresis has different dosages, which are due to the duration of exposure (from 10 minutes to half an hour) and current density (0.03-0.08 mA / cm 2). Children and the elderly should receive electrophoresis at a lower dose, which is a third or a quarter lower than for an adult. The usual course of treatment is from 10 to 20 sessions. Electrophoresis sessions are conducted daily, or every other day. After completing the full course, it can be repeated again if necessary, but not earlier than in 2-3 months.
Contraindications to electrophoresis
Methods of drug electrophoresis
The essence of the technique of medicinal electrophoresis is the application of the drug drug perpendicular to the direction of current flow, that is, between the electrode and human skin. In domestic practice, the most commonly used solutions of drugs, and abroad prefer to use the same medicines, but in the form of a gel.
To date, there are several varieties of medicinal electrophoresis, which are caused by various methods of applying the medicine, and the type of electric current. Consider the basic methods of medicinal electrophoresis.
Most often, electrophoresis is carried out from solutions of drugs that are moistened with special pads. Gaskets are gauze, folded in 2-4 layers, or filter paper. A solution of the drug substance in the required amount and concentration is transferred to the gasket, which is located on the body. On the medicinal gasket is placed a protective, and the dimensions of both pads should be the same. And on a protective gasket set the electrode apparatus for electrophoresis. The second electrode is installed on the opposite side of the body to create a line along which the medicinal substance will move.
The electrophoresis apparatus has two electrodes — a positive (anode) and a negative (cathode). The drug substance dissociates in solution also into positive ions (cations) and negative (anions). If the drug dissociates to form cations, then it should be placed on the positive electrode. In the case of dissociation of the drug into anions, the drug gasket is placed under the negative electrode. Thus, there is a universal rule for the location of the drug gasket: the drug and the electrode must have the same charge (+ or -).
If the drug dissociates with the formation of cations and anions, then the drug strip is allowed to be placed under both electrodes simultaneously.
Bath tray technique
In this case, electrodes are already built into a special container (bath). To conduct electrophoresis, the necessary solution of the drug is simply poured into the container, and the person immerses the desired part of the body in the liquid.
In this case, a drug solution is injected into the hollow organs (stomach, bladder, rectum, vagina, etc.). Then the desired electrode (cathode or anode) is also introduced into the organ cavity, and the second is located on the surface of the body.
In this case, the drug is administered through the mouth (tablets), intravenously or intramuscularly, after which the electrodes are placed on the part of the body where the focus of the pathological process is located. Interstitial electrophoresis is especially effective in treating diseases of the respiratory tract (bronchitis, laryngitis, tracheobronchitis, etc.).
For the procedure are used, mainly solutions of drugs. Solutions are prepared ex tempore, that is, immediately before use. Long storage (more than 7 days) of solutions of drugs for electrophoresis is not allowed. Different drugs are administered in different concentrations, which are determined by many factors.
Concentrations of solutions of various preparations for electrophoresis:
- Adrenaline – 0.1%
- Antipyrine – 1-10%
- Ascorbic acid (vitamin C) – 5-10%
- Atropine – 0.1%
- Biomitsin – 0.5%
- Bromine – 1-10%
- Thiamine (Vitamin Bone) – 2-5%
- Lidaza (hyaluronidase) – 0.5-1 g diluted with 100 ml of 1% novocaine solution
- Histamine – 0.01%
- Dicain – 2-4%
- Dimedrol – 0,25-0,5%
- Iodine – 1-10%
- Calcium – 1-10%
- Potassium – 1-10%
- Sulfotiophen – 1-10%
- Codeine – 0.1-0.5%
- Caffeine – 1-10%
- Lithium – 1-10%
- Magnesium sulphate (magnesia) – 1-2%
- Nicotinic acid (vitamin PP) – 1-10%
- Copper – 0.1%
- Novocain – 1g dissolved in 100 ml of 0.5% soda solution
- Papaverine – 0.1%
- Penicillin – 5000-10000 IU per 1 ml solution
- Platyfillin – 0.03%
- Prozerin – 0.1%
- Salicylic acid – 1-10%
- Sulfur – 2-5%
- Silver 1-2%
- Sintomitsin – 0.3%
- Streptocide – 0.8% (use 1% soda solution as solvent)
- Urotropin – 2-10%
- Phosphoric acid – 2-5%
- Chlorine – 3-10%
- Zinc – 0.1-2%
- Euphyllinum – 2%
- Ephedrine – 0.1%.
Solutions for electrophoresis have low concentrations, so you must adhere to the following rules for their preparation:
one. On exact scales, measure the specified number of grams of a substance (for example, for a 2% solution take 2 g of the substance, for a 0.8% solution – 0.8 g).
2 Pour the measure of the substance into a clean measuring container with a volume of at least 100 ml.
3 Take distilled water and slowly pour it up to the mark. "100 ml"by rinsing the tip of the scale, on which there was a yardstick.
four. Pour into another container and mix until the substance is completely dissolved.
Requirements for electrophoresis drugs
Medicinal products intended for electrophoresis must meet the following requirements:
one. Clean, no impurities.
2 Fresh, that is, the solution of the drug is prepared immediately before use.
3 To prepare the solution, use only pure water (distilled).
four. If the drug is insoluble in water, then purified alcohol or Dimexide (dimethyl sulfoxide) is used as a solvent.
five. Do not use as a solvent of saline.
6 For the preparation of enzyme solutions (lidaza) it is necessary to use buffers (phosphate, hydrocarbonate, etc.) as a solvent.
Drugs introduced from the anode and cathode are shown in the table: