What are sedatives?
Sedatives – An extensive group of drugs, which is used to normalize the mental state, reduce emotional stress. Soothing means are made from natural or synthetic raw materials. Soothing agents are also called sedatives (from the Latin “sedatio” – calm). Therefore, the effect of using this group of drugs is also called a sedative effect.
Most often, herbal preparations based on valerian, peppermint and motherwort are used as sedatives. Such substances do not cause additional effects, such as drowsiness, and can be used by the patient on their own. However, in the case of depression or other severe mental disorders, psychoactive substances with a more pronounced effect are usually prescribed.
The indications for the use of sedatives are very extensive. They can be used for mood disorders, various mania, feelings of uncontrollable anxiety, fear, anxiety. In the world around us, a person very often encounters various sources of stress that cause these sensations. Sedatives are also used in acute psychosis, impaired perception of the real world and disorganization of behavior.
Most sedatives are characterized by various side effects, including sleep disturbances, mood changes, and inhibition of the reaction. Side effects may be deprived of herbal-based sedatives. That is why the use of sedatives is allowed only after consulting a doctor.
How do sedatives affect the nervous system?
The effect of sedatives is realized through the effect of inhibition of the nervous system. Sedatives can inhibit the transmission of nervous excitement, reduce the sensitivity of nerve endings, affect various types of receptors. Due to this, the pathological mechanisms of the development of unpleasant sensations are interrupted (fear anxiety).
Transmission of impulses in the nervous system is carried out by means of small chemical compounds called mediators (“Carriers”). So, neuroleptics (antipsychotics) block dopamine receptors, antidepressants act on the receptors for serotonin, norepinephrine and other neurogenic mediators. The mechanism of action of herbal sedative drugs is not completely clear, since specific substances that cause a sedative effect after their administration have not been identified.
The work of the nervous system is a very complex process involving millions of neurons. Modern pharmacology does not have drugs that can act so selectively as to provide the desired effect without interfering with the work of a large number of neurons. That is why when using sedatives, various side effects can occur, for example, drowsiness, muscle tremors, changes in body temperature, heart rhythm and blood pressure disturbances, and others.
Sedatives for adults. Sedatives for men and women
An adult’s life is full of stress. Increased emotional load falls on the shoulders of both men and women. Insomnia, lack of energy, loss of appetite, interest in life, including some pain syndromes may be signs of depression. In these cases, a variety of sedatives have to be used.
Most sedatives are universal, they can be applied regardless of gender to both men and women. However, scientists have noticed that women have a more labile psyche, which is why they use soothing drugs about 2 times more often than men. The reason is the peculiarities of the hormonal functions of the female body.
Restrictions for the use of sedatives by gender does not exist. They can only be medical contraindications. It should be noted that pregnancy is one of them. Pregnant women can use light herbal-based sedatives (valerian, motherwort), because stronger drugs can affect the development of the child. The decision to use strong sedatives is taken only if their potential benefit exceeds the existing risk.
Sedatives for children
A variety of sedatives allows them to be used at different ages in both children and adults. However, many drugs with a sedative effect are characterized by a variety of side effects. That is why, if for adults there are practically no restrictions in the use of sedatives with the exception of medical contraindications, then due to age and incomplete development of the nervous system, the use of many drugs is prohibited for children. If necessary, pediatricians usually prescribe herbal or homeopathic sedatives for children.
For children is very characteristic vulnerable and sensitive to emotional stress psyche. To protect children, it is best to eliminate the cause of stress, rather than resort to the use of medications. However, to facilitate falling asleep, to increase perseverance and attention, children are sometimes prescribed sedatives for better social adaptation. Preparations in the form of syrups, suspensions and mixtures are best suited for children under one year; after three years, herbal teas and infusions can be used. Tablets can be used from the age of six, and capsules – only in the age of 10 – 12 years.
At the age of 3 years, children can be given glycine, pantogam and some other drugs. Pantogam – a nootropic agent that improves brain function and memory, as well as calming children with psychomotor agitation and sleep disorders. Tranquilizers (phenazepam, diazepam and others) are used in children of this age only in the most extreme cases. The correct dosage can only pick a doctor.
For children aged 5 to 10 years, the range of recommended sedatives is expanding. Atomoxetine, Percen, Phenibut, Tenoten and many other drugs can be used. Also herbal teas and fees have a good effect (humana, mother’s fairy tale and others). They are guaranteed to be harmless and devoid of side effects. For older children, doctors recommend Phenibut. This drug improves brain function and has a moderate sedative effect.
It should be noted that in addition to the use of medicines, it is very important to create optimal living conditions for the child. They consist in the correct mode of the day, adequate rest, good nutrition, comfortable emotional atmosphere in the family. At observance of all factors, the need to take sedatives in childhood, as a rule, disappears.
Can sedatives be used during pregnancy?
Pregnancy is a serious stress for the female body. During pregnancy, the hormonal background of the woman is rebuilt, as a result of which life events can lead to various mood swings. In this regard, there is a need for the use of sedatives. Despite this, doctors recommend avoiding taking any medications during pregnancy, as this negatively affects the developing fetus.
From the number of sedatives, pregnant women should not use neuroleptics, antidepressants and other strong sedatives. During pregnancy, doctors do not recommend the use of even such common sedatives as Persen and Novo-Passit, which have natural ingredients. The manufacturer declares the possibility of their use only if the potential benefits of them outweigh the risk to the fetus.
As sedatives for pregnant women, you can use soothing teas, infusions and decoctions. For example, tea based on mint, lingonberry, motherwort, valerian has a good effect. Under the supervision of a physician, and only with his permission during pregnancy you can use alcohol-containing tinctures of valerian, peony, lemon balm, motherwort.
What sedatives can be used during lactation?
The use of sedatives during breastfeeding meets the same limitations as during pregnancy. Components of sedatives can penetrate into breast milk and damage the development of the baby. That is why, in parallel with breastfeeding, only natural herbal sedatives can be used. These drugs are sedatives and have a mild sedative effect.
If necessary, use more powerful tools (antidepressants, tranquilizers) there is an alternative option, which is to stop breastfeeding and switch to artificial feeding. In this case, a young mother can use sedative drugs in full. Modern nutritional mixtures provide a complete set of necessary items for feeding the child.
Forms of release of sedatives
There are various forms of release of sedatives:
- Tinctures and drops. In this form, herbal sedative drugs are produced (motherwort, valerian, peony) and combinations thereof. Tinctures are obtained by alcoholic or aqueous-alcoholic extraction of therapeutic substances without heating. Carefully chopped vegetable raw materials are poured with alcohol and infused in a darkened and warm place, after which the mixture is filtered. Tinctures are used by ingestion. A tin of tincture is usually equipped with a dispenser with which you can measure the required amount of tincture. It usually makes from 20 to 30 drops for 1 reception.
- Vegetable fees. Herbal preparations are dried sets of crushed plant parts, on the basis of which teas and infusions can be prepared for ingestion. The infusion is prepared by adding to the collection of hot boiled water. An example of a sedative plant collection is a phyto sedan (№2, №3).
- Syrup. It is an aqueous solution of sucrose containing medicinal substances, dyes, flavors and flavorings. Medicinal syrups can be obtained by adding tincture to sugar syrup. Soothing syrups are usually used in childhood, as children enjoy the pleasant taste of the medicine, and they are more willing to swallow it compared to tablets or tinctures.
- Pills. The most common form of release is sedatives. It is in the form of tablets that most sedatives are supplied. Soothing tablets can be used at any age from 6 years.
- Capsules Represent a dosage form in a solid gelatin shell. The contents of the capsule can be a powder or granules. According to the mechanism of action and dosage capsules are similar to tablets. The gelatin capsule shell helps to protect the taste buds of the tongue from the bitter taste of the active ingredients of the drug, and also protects the drugs from destruction by gastric juice.
- Injection. Soothing means are injected intramuscularly only in extreme cases when a person cannot take a pill of the drug on his own. That is why potent sedatives such as diazepam, haloperidol, imizin, maprotiline are produced in injection solutions. Solutions of depressants for injection usually have a small concentration, from 0.5 to 1%.
Homeopathy is a branch of medicine that involves the use of low-concentration drugs that presumably cause symptoms in healthy people that are similar to the symptoms of a patient’s illness. The principle of homeopathy is to “treat such like.” Traditional medicine is skeptical of homeopathic medicines, since there is no reliable evidence of their effectiveness. However, in practice they have a positive effect on the mental state of children and adults. Homeopathic medicines are harmless, so they can be used from a very young age.
Homeopathic sedative drugs include the following drugs:
- Tenoten. The drug contains antibodies to the protein, which is part of the central nervous system. According to the manufacturer, it protects against stress and depression, improves the metabolic processes of the brain, strengthens memory and attention. Tenoten is available in the form of tablets for sucking in the mouth.
- Nott. Available in tablets for sublingual resorption and drops for oral administration. Contains extracts of oats, chamomile, coffee tree, zinc and phosphorus. It is used for anxiety, mental stress and sleep disorder in children from 6 months.
- Neurosead. It is a homeopathic preparation in the form of granules, intended for the treatment of neurosis and increased nervous excitability, especially in menopause.
- Valerianhel German homeopathic medicine containing more than 10 active ingredients in its composition. The main one is the extract of Valerian drug. It is a solution of 100 ml. As part of treatment with this drug, it is necessary to take 3 times a day, 15 drops of the drug previously diluted in 100 ml of drinking water.
- Avena It is a multicomponent homeopathic preparation based on oats (lat avena – oats), used for violations of sleep, increased excitability, irritability. It is produced in the form of small granules, designed for sucking under the tongue.
There is a wide variety of homeopathic sedatives. From the point of view of official medicine, they have low or unproven effectiveness, so they can be used only with mild stress and emotional disturbances. Homeopathic sedatives are sold without a prescription and can be used as an independent treatment, as they are completely harmless.
High-speed sedatives (during stress, panic attack, acute psychosis and other conditions)
Often, people who are aware of the need to take sedatives expect a quick effect from them. In many situations, you need to quickly pull yourself together. Unfortunately, there is not always a magical sedative, which, after a single dose, can put a person in a psycho-emotional state. Thus, the majority of sedatives available for purchase in pharmacies have a moderate effect, and stronger drugs are sold only by prescription.
Under stress and anxiety, doctors recommend the use of the most simple sedatives, such as valerian, motherwort or a combination of sedatives. Tranquilizers, antidepressants can not be used independently, since they can be toxic to the nervous system and the body as a whole.
When panic attacks, acute psychosis (delusional ideas, hallucinations) urgent medical attention is required. Emergency doctors have strong sedatives that quickly relieve acute mental symptoms. High-speed medications used for this purpose include droperidol, haloperidol, diazepam, and their analogues. These drugs have an intramuscular route of administration.
Soothing means vary in strength of action. Stronger drugs are characterized by the fact that they can be harmful to human health even if used correctly, for example, if the indications are not correctly determined. That is why the majority of sedatives today are available on prescription. However, there are exceptions.
First of all, all homeopathic sedatives are available for purchase without a prescription. Due to the low content of the active substance, they are practically harmless. Most of the drugs belonging to the sedative group, are composed of herbal ingredients (peony, passionflower, motherwort, valerian) and sold without a prescription. This also applies to the combined means, novo-passitu, phytosed, persen and analogues.
Among tranquilizers (drugs that eliminate anxiety and fear) without a prescription, you can buy only afobazole and some so-called “daily” drugs, which are devoid of many side effects, but in return have lower efficacy. These include paroxetine, medazepam and other drugs. Antidepressants and neuroleptics are psychoactive drugs with a pronounced effect; therefore, they are sold only by prescription with a few exceptions.
Classification of sedatives. The mechanism of action of sedatives
Sedatives are used in various clinical situations. They normalize the state of the nervous system, reducing excitation processes or increasing the level of inhibition. Sedatives can be prescribed by doctors specializing in mental illness or can be used by patients on their own, being available for sale.
Today, there are a large number of drugs that have a sedative (soothinga) effect. Depending on the severity of the emotional load and the severity of mental disorders, one or other sedatives are used. All of them differ in strength of action, speed of onset of therapeutic effect, severity of side effects. Depending on these and other characteristics (chemical composition, mechanism of actiona) sedative drugs are systematized in various classifications.
The mechanism of action of sedatives largely depends on their composition. Most sedatives, in one way or another, interact with neurotransmitters of the nervous system, which carry out the transmission of nerve impulses. Due to the strengthening or weakening of this transmission, the functions of the nervous system are normalized. Today, there are many diseases of the nervous system, each of which requires a different approach to treatment.
Psychoactive (psychotropic substances). General classification of psychoactive substances
Currently, there are many different medicines that have a direct effect on human mental activity. The vast majority of them have a sedative (soothinga) effect, however, some of them may cause excitation of the nervous system, as a primary or secondary effect.
The following groups of drugs belong to psychoactive substances with a sedative effect:
Antipsychotic substances (neuroleptics). Aminazine, teralidzhen
Antipsychotics (also called neuroleptics) are one of the most active drugs from the group of psychoactive. They are used for the relief of acute psychosis, manifested by escape from reality, abrupt thinking, depression, and even auditory and visual hallucinations. Acute psychosis can be caused by alcoholism or drug addiction. Neuroleptics are characterized by a variety of side effects (reduction of blood pressure, tachycardia, motor disorders, sexual dysfunction), therefore, they are used only in specialized medical institutions or as part of emergency care.
The mechanism of action of neuroleptics is the blockade of dopamine receptors in the brain. Due to the fact that the drugs in this group do not have a selective effect, in addition to eliminating the symptoms of acute psychosis (delusions, hallucinations), neuroleptics also inhibit the motor parts of the brain, controlled by the dopamine mediator. As a result, more than half of neuroleptics when used are characterized by parkinsonism (limb tremor), trisism (spasm of chewing muscles) salivation. Neuroleptics also block acetylcholine and adrenergic receptors located throughout the body. These manifestations of drugs in this group are also undesirable.
Among the neuroleptics with a strong sedative (sedativea) effect include the following drugs:
- risperidone and others.
Aminazin (chlorpromazine) – the first of the neuroleptics obtained, which is characterized by a strong effect on the nervous system. It is manifested by sedation (calming down) drowsiness, blocking delusions and hallucinations. In addition to the beneficial effects, chlorpromazine inhibits muscle activity, lowers body temperature (due to the oppression of the thermoregulation center), has antiemetic effect. At the same time aminazin is addictive in the case of prolonged use. For most neuroleptics proven destructive effect on the structure of the brain with a long application. The use of neuroleptics for more than 12 months leads to a decrease in the weight and volume of the brain.
Teraligen (active ingredient alimemazine) – modern neuroleptic, which has a milder effect than most of the drugs in this group. This drug is relatively well tolerated, so it can be used even in childhood and adolescence. The mechanism of action, like aminazine, is due to the blockade of dopamine receptors in the brain, but it is ineffective in acute psychotic conditions.
Antidepressants are another type of psychoactive drug used mainly to treat depression. Depression is a mental disorder in which a person loses the ability to have fun. A depressed person is removed from society, ceases to pay attention to ordinary vital needs. Depression often causes other mental disorders, as the person may feel persistent phobias, anxiety. Acceptance of conventional depressants for depression is ineffective, the disease requires skilled treatment with antidepressants.
According to modern ideas about the development of depression, this condition develops due to a lack of serotonin and dopamine in the nervous system. Antidepressants affect depression by increasing the duration of the neurogenic mediators serotonin, dopamine, norepinephrine. The mechanism of action of antidepressants can be implemented in two ways. Part of antidepressants (monoamine oxidase inhibitors) violate the action of the enzyme that destroys these substances. Other antidepressants block the capture of mediators by neurons, so that their concentration in unbound form remains elevated. Increasing the concentration of serotonin and dopamine in various parts of the brain normalizes mood, eliminates mental retardation, anxiety and fear caused by depression. Some antidepressants may have a psychostimulant effect.
Among antidepressants, the most common drugs are:
- pyrazidol and others.
Amitriptyline is one of the most active anti-depressants. The therapeutic effect of the drug appears after 10 – 14 days. The drug also has a sedative effect, which is manifested in a decrease in response to external stimuli and a decrease in daily activity. Unfortunately, excessive sedation is possible. Of the side effects of the drug are dry mouth, tachycardia, arrhythmias. Taking this drug may cause weight gain.
Fluoxetine is an antidepressant with a selective effect. It is aimed at increasing serotonin levels in the brain. The effect of taking fluoxetine develops gradually, over a period of 1 to 4 weeks. It compares favorably with amitriptyline and other antidepressants in that it does not cause sedation, does not affect the cardiovascular system, and has fewer side effects. That is why fluoxetine is widely used in medical practice for the treatment of depression.
Antidepressants – monoamine oxidase inhibitors began to be used only after preparations with selective action were obtained. The first drugs were very toxic to the liver, cardiovascular system, and even dangerous to use. This was due to the fact that the antidepressant effect is manifested only after 10 days of treatment, while an additional 2 weeks are required to restore the enzyme monoamine oxidase. Today safer antidepressants, such as moclobemide, pyrazidol, have appeared. These drugs are well tolerated, and side effects after their use are rare.
Tranquilizers (anxiolytics). Diazepam, grandaxine, afobazole
Tranquilizers are psychoactive drugs that are used to eliminate anxiety, fear and anxiety. Tranquilizers are used for neurosis and neurotic states. The scientist I. Pavlov defined neurosis as a chronic, long-lasting disruption of higher nervous activity caused by strong external stimuli. Symptoms of neurosis are irritability, anxiety, touchiness, indecision, problems in communication, reduced memory and attention.
Tranquilizers have a combination of effects. In addition to eliminating the symptoms of neurosis, they have a calming (sedative), hypnotic, muscle relaxant (relaxing muscles) and anticonvulsant effect. The ratio of these actions in tranquilizers is different, but the main thing is to reduce emotional tension, anxiety and fear.
Tranquilizers in composition and mechanism of action are divided into the following groups:
- Benzodiazepines. Represent the widest group. These include phenazepam, diazepam, grandaxine (tofizopam) and many others. Side effects of benzodiazepine include pronounced drowsiness, impaired memory, headache. Drugs in this group are divided by duration into short (valid for less than 6 hours), average (work from 6 to 24 hours) and long (the effect lasts more than 24 hours).
- Serotonin receptor agonists. An example of a drug in this group is buspirone. It binds only to serotonin and dopamine receptors, so that it is well tolerated and causes few side effects with respect to benzodiazepines.
- Preparations of other types of action. Tranquilizers new generation (amisyl, afobazole) have a variety of modes of action, different safe use in many clinical situations.
Grandaxine (active substance tofizopam) – a modern tranquilizer from the group of benzodiazepines. The mechanism of action of grandaxine is to increase the sensitivity of the receptors of the nervous system to GABA (gamma-aminobutyric acid). This compound regulates the processes of nerve transmission. Grandaxine is the so-called “day tranquilizer”. This means that it can be used during the day due to the fact that it does not cause a hypnotic effect and other side effects inherent in benzodiazepines. Gidazepam, medazepam, buspirone are also referred to as daytime tranquilizers.
Afobazol (active ingredient fabomotisol) – a new selective tranquilizer, which was developed in Russia. Afobazole, like benzodiazepines, affects GABA receptors, but is devoid of many side effects. The action of the drug develops on the fifth day of treatment and lasts, on average, 2 weeks after its termination. The drug does not cause muscle weakness, drowsiness, does not have a negative effect on concentration and memory. Afobazole does not form addiction and drug dependence.
Sedatives (soothing) facilities. Plant-based sedatives (on herbs). Bromine preparations
Sedatives are drugs, mainly of plant origin, aimed at reducing emotional stress without a hypnotic effect. Compared with tranquilizers, sedatives have a milder effect, which allows them to be used on a daily basis, as well as in children and old age. Sedative herbal remedies are well tolerated, almost devoid of side effects and contraindications. Sedatives also include bromine preparations.
Medicinal plants capable of producing a sedative effect include the following:
The most commonly used drugs Valerian drug. These include rhizome extract, valerian extract, valerian extract. These drugs have a pronounced sedative effect, enhance the effect of sleeping pills. Valerian can relieve smooth muscle spasms. Best of all, valerian acts with increased nervous irritability or insomnia. Until now, it has not been established exactly which compound contained in valerian determines its effect.
Motherwort drugs are similar in use and according to the testimony of valerian drugs. Motherwort tinctures contain essential oils, alkaloids, tannins. They should be used for nervous excitability, high blood pressure caused by emotional stress. The disadvantage of herbal tinctures is the alcohol content, which may be a contraindication for certain categories of patients. Herbal sedatives should be used in contact with external stimuli that cause a strong emotional response to prevent a neurotic condition. Such events can be interviews, exams, sporting events and many other life situations.
Peony, passionflower, lemon balm and some other plants are very often part of the homeopathic or combination sedatives. From these plants, unique compounds are obtained that are able to normalize the emotional state in the so-called “borderline” states, which, when progressed, can lead to depression or neurosis.
Bromine salts have a mild sedative effect. Of the bromine salts, sodium or potassium bromide is most often used. Bromides enhance the braking process in the brain. Bromine salts have long been used in cases of irritability and insomnia. However, because of their slow elimination from the body, their prolonged use threatens with poisoning, the so-called bromism. It is manifested by general lethargy, memory impairment and skin manifestations (acne). That is why today bromine preparations as sedatives are being abandoned in favor of safer herbal remedies.
Combined sedatives. Novo-Passit, Valemidin, Persen, Corvalol
In many sedatives, a complex composition of herbal ingredients is used to enhance the sedative effect. Combined drugs include drugs such as Novo-Passit, Valemidine, Phyto-sedan, Valocordin and many others. These drugs are distinguished by the best action among sedatives approved for use without a doctor’s prescription, surpassing single-component herbal sedatives.
Novo-Passit is a well-known herbal combination preparation, which is produced in the form of oral solution or tablets. It includes parts of valerian, lemon balm, St. John’s wort, hawthorn, passionflower, hop and elderberry. Novo-Passit has a soothing (sedative) and anti-anxiety (anxiolytic) Effect. Novo-Passit is used for insomnia, constant mental stress caused by work, with migraines and headaches.
Valemidin is an alcohol drop for oral administration. The drug is a tincture of valerian, motherwort, hawthorn and peppermint. In addition, valemidine contains a small amount of Dimedrol, which eliminates the spasms of smooth muscles and has a small sedative and hypnotic effect. Valemidine is used for neurosis, as well as for stressful emotional stress.
Persen is available in the form of capsules or tablets and contains extracts of valerian, lemon balm and mint. Persen has a calming and antispasmodic effect. Removal of smooth muscle spasm is possible thanks to the extract of lemon balm and mint, which are its part. High content of valerian (125 mg) as part of Persena provides a sufficient hypnotic effect for its use in insomnia.
The phyto sedan is the name of the charges of crushed plants of different composition. The sedative collection of phyto sedan №2 contains motherwort, hops, mint, valerian and licorice, while phyto sedan №3 includes oregano, thyme and sweet clover in addition to motherwort and valerian. Both collections have a calming effect. To prepare the infusion on the collection must fill the contents of the package (about 5 grams) 200 ml of hot boiled water and infuse from 15 to 45 minutes.
Funds for the treatment of mania (lithium salts)
For drugs that affect the mental state, also include lithium drugs. These funds are used mainly for the treatment of mania, as well as for the prevention of depression and psychosis. Lithium preparations are sometimes combined with antidepressants. Lithium preparations are characterized by the fact that they do not cause either sedation (sedative) nor exciting effect. Lithium is used in the form of salts, namely in the form of carbonate, sulfate, lithium chloride and other compounds. In Russia, lithium salts use only carbonate.
The mechanism of action of lithium ions on the nervous system is diverse. Lithium preparations delay the conduction of a nerve impulse, as they are an antagonist of sodium ions. Lithium also extends the life of monoamines (serotonin, dopamine) and increases the sensitivity of certain areas of the brain to dopamine. This shows its similarity with many antidepressants.
Lithium carbonate is a drug that comes in pill form and is used to treat mania and depression. The therapeutic effect of it comes only 2 – 3 weeks after the start of the reception. Unfortunately, the use of lithium carbonate is not completely harmless, since it can cause various side effects. Lithium carbonate can cause hand tremors, muscle weakness, and heart rhythm disturbances. The drug is completely contraindicated for people suffering from kidney disease, thyroid, stomach ulcer, cholecystitis.
Nootropic drugs. Phenibut, piracetam
Nootropic drugs also belong to psychoactive drugs. Their purpose is to stimulate the metabolism and energy metabolism of nerve cells, improve mental and mental activity. Nootropic drugs are used to restore brain functions during hypoxia, trauma, stroke and disorders caused by other causes.
Piracetam is a cyclic derivative of GABA (gamma-aminobutyric acid). This compound plays a function of the inhibitory mediator, and also affects the metabolic processes of the brain, stimulating tissue respiration. Piracetam stimulates thinking, learning and memory, and also increases the resistance of brain tissue to oxygen starvation. Moreover, piracetam does not have any sedative or anti-anxiety effect.
Phenibut is a common nootropic drug, which, unlike piracetam, also has an anxiolytic effect. Like piracetam, it affects the transmission of impulses mediated by the GABA mediator, but it is able to relieve tension, anxiety and improve sleep. The advantage of this drug is its free sale in pharmacies.
Instructions for the use of sedatives
Proper use of sedatives is the main condition for their effectiveness and low probability of side effects. Compliance with the method of administration, dosage and frequency of use of sedatives is very important for safe treatment. When choosing a dose of a sedative, you should be guided by the recommendations of the doctor, pharmacist or the accompanying instructions to the medication.
The use of sedatives in the form of tablets
The most common form of release of sedatives are pills. In the form of tablets, sedatives, antidepressants, tranquilizers, and even the most potent antipsychotics are available. Instructions for the use of drugs in different groups, as well as the dosage, are different.
Neuroleptics are more often produced in the form of solution for injections, however, there are also drugs available in tablets (aminazine, haloperidol). The average daily dose is, on average, 10 to 15 mg divided into three doses. Neuroleptic pills are taken orally for half an hour before eating, drinking water or milk.
Antidepressants are available mainly in the form of tablets and capsules. The standard dosage of one tablet is 25 mg (amitriptyline, maprotiline, fluoxetine and other drugs). The initial dose of antidepressants is 1 tablet at night, if necessary, it is increased to 150-200 mg per day, divided into three doses. In this case, most of the dose is taken at night. It is recommended to take anti-depressants immediately after a meal in order to reduce the irritating effect of the drugs on the gastric mucosa.
The predominant form of release tranquilizers (diazepam, phenazepam, lorazepam, buspirone) – pills and capsules. One tablet contains from 2.5 mg to 10 mg of active ingredient. The daily dose of tranquilizers is 1 – 2 tablets per day. Preparations of this group are recommended to be taken at the same time, in order to avoid fluctuations in the concentration of active substances in the blood.
Herbal preparations, available in tablet form (new passit, persen) contain, on average, 100 – 150 mg of active ingredients. Acceptance of such drugs during the day is not strictly regulated, they can be used at any time, but preferably at night, as valerian has a hypnotic effect. The maximum daily dose is 10 to 12 tablets. Herbal sedatives can be taken symptomatically, to provide a quick effect, and not as part of courses.
The use of sedatives in the form of solution for injection
In the form of a solution for injection, antipsychotics are available, as well as some antidepressants and tranquilizers. Injections of sedatives are carried out intramuscularly and quite rarely intravenously. This form of drug administration sometimes has to be resorted to when the patient does not want to take medicine voluntarily. The dose of the active substance when administered intramuscularly is equivalent to its content in tablets and depends on the therapeutic requirements.
Neuroleptics (aminazine, haloperidol, chlorprothixen) available in ampoules from 1 to 10 ml with a concentration of the active substance from 0.5% to 2.5%. In the form of ampoules also produced tranquilizer diazepam. One ampoule of 2 ml contains 10 mg of active substance. Intravenous or intramuscular administration of these funds is carried out only by medical personnel in a special dosage, calculated in accordance with the indications.
The use of soothing infusions, fees and teas
Among the available sedatives that do not require a prescription, soothing collections and teas are in free sale. The standard composition of such fees includes a variety of sedative plants and herbs, giving the infusion a pleasant taste and aroma. Everyone can make their own infusion based on the collection or tea and use it as needed.
To prepare the infusion, you must pour the contents of a packet of tea or vegetable collection with boiling water200 ml), then heat in a boiling water bath for 15 minutes. After cooling and straining, the volume of the solution is adjusted to the initial 200 ml. The resulting infusion is taken three times a day before meals, for 20 – 30 minutes, dividing it into three portions. Soothing charges can be applied once or as part of a course. The duration of this course is from 10 to 14 days.
How long can you continue taking sedatives?
The duration of the use of prescription sedatives is prescribed by a doctor. For many drugs, it can be from 1 to 3 months. This is true for neuroleptics and antidepressants. Duration of use of benzodiazepines (diazepam, phenazepam) limited to 2 to 3 weeks, since these drugs can be addictive and addictive. With an increase in the period of taking neuroleptics and antidepressants, other side effects may occur.
Herbal sedatives are usually not taken for a course longer than 14 days, since it is impractical. Valerian, motherwort and similar drugs are more effective for short-term use. If the effect of these drugs is insufficient, the doctor may prescribe a stronger drug for a long time. In general, the duration of the course of sedatives depends on the therapeutic indications.
Sedatives before visiting the doctor (Dentist, surgeon, psychotherapist and others)
Is it possible to use sedatives when driving a car, controlling mechanisms?
Can I take sedatives with alcohol?
The use of sedatives with alcohol is strictly prohibited. Ethyl alcohol itself is a substance with a sedative effect, as it activates the system of inhibition of the brain. In combination with sedatives, the toxic effects of the drug and alcohol on the nervous system, liver, and other organs increase significantly.
The consequences of a mixed intake of sedatives with alcohol may be unexpected. Most likely severe intoxication, memory lapses, uncontrolled behavior. Possible irritability, aggressiveness, clouding of consciousness. Systematic alcohol abuse in combination with sedatives leads to drug dependence and withdrawal syndrome when trying to stop using it. The treatment of such addiction is much more complicated than the treatment of alcoholism.
In addition to dependence and depression of the nervous system, the combination of alcohol and sedatives threatens with the following side effects:
- respiratory failure and choking due to depression of the respiratory center in the brainstem
- arrhythmias, irregular heart function
- impaired motor function, delayed reaction, lack of motor coordination
- wrong work of the sense organs and so on.