Physiological function sneezing as a protective unconditioned reflex is the removal of foreign particles (such as mucus or dust) from the respiratory tract. The act of sneezing itself is forced, sharp exhalation through the nasopharynx, carried out after a deep short breath. It differs from coughing in that the tongue is pressed against the palate during sneezing, and a sharp exhalation occurs through the nose.
The act of sneezing is as follows: a person feels sverbezhi in the nose, anticipating the appearance of a sneezing reflex, inhales deeply the air, filling the lungs with air, the soft palate rises, the mouth of the pharynx contracts, the surface of the tongue pressed against the hard palate involuntarily closes the eyes.
Then intercostal, diaphragmatic, and abdominal muscles contract. The muscles of the larynx are the last to contract, which is why the glottis closes. All these reflex actions ultimately lead to the fact that an increased intra-abdominal and intrathoracic pressure is formed.
After that, the air is vigorously exhaled. The rate of exhaled air passing at the level of the glottis can reach 50-100 meters per second, and its pressure is 100 mm Hg. Droplets of saliva and mucus from the nasal and oral cavities enter the air stream. Due to the forced movement of air, these droplets extend to a distance of 3-5 meters.
A sneezing reflex occurs when irritation of the mucous membrane lining the nasal cavity occurs. The reasons for this irritation may be down, dust, pet hair (so-called “dust agents”) mold, pollen, horny skin particles (allergens).
Another type of irritant that affects the mucosa of the nasopharynx and nose is volatile substances (fragrances, cigarette smoke).
The appearance of a sneezing reflex can be provoked by an abrupt change in temperature (for example, when a person came out of a warm room on a street with a minus temperature) or a sudden bright light that falls on your eyes, forcing you to close your eyes.
Often sneezing is a symptom of allergic and acute respiratory viral diseases.
Pregnant women before the very birth give rise to complaints of sneezing and breathing difficulties. They swell up the mucous membrane of the nose feeling worse. This condition is associated with hormonal prenatal adjustment, and is called “pregnant rhinitis“.
With such pathology as bulbar paralysis, sneezing reflex can be broken.
The value of the sneezing reflex
The sneezing reflex is a protective mechanism that allows you to remove foreign particles from the respiratory tract. But there is a reverse, negative side of this phenomenon: if sneezing occurs as a symptom of diseases transmitted by airborne droplets, then along with sneezing, the infection spreads further and gets to healthy people, infecting them.
It is interesting that:
- In completely different cultures, it is customary to wish health to those who sneeze.
- There is a long-standing superstition that says that if a person sneezed during a conversation, then what he said is true.
There are many signs associated with sneezing. For example, it is believed that if a sailor sneezes while standing at the starboard when loading baggage onto a ship, his voyage will turn out to be a success, and if near the left – then a storm will overtake him on the way.
Another sign that exists mainly in East Anglia is that if you sneeze early in the morning, you may receive an unexpected gift before the end of this week.
However, all these sayings and omens refer only to occasional single sneezing. Cold, snuff or pepper – do not go into the bill.
In Scotland, it is believed that a child who was born an idiot does not know how to sneeze. There it is also believed that the newborn child is defenseless from the machinations of evil spirits until it sneezes. The midwives, despite the fact that the baby should sneeze by chance, always carried with them a tobacco pouch – it was thought that it was better for the child to sneeze intentionally than he would not sneeze at all.
Sometimes, in response to a sneeze, a person is told “Save God!”. Now they do not think about where such a wish came from. And it turns out, this custom is very ancient. Once in Greece, in Athens, the plague began and spread. Chih was the first herald of the disease. Therefore, this exclamation signified a request to God to have mercy on the person who will die. In the past, the death rate from the plague was up to 90% of the number of cases. Therefore, it is not surprising that people considered everyone who fell ill to be practically dead. In the future, this custom was adopted by the Romans, and then spread it further.
If the child sneezes regularly and sneezing is accompanied by nasal mucous membranes, then it is a cold. It is not difficult to restore nasal breathing with the help of nasal loops. Enough every few hours to drip drops and clean the nose from crusts. If a child drops a few drops of the juice of the home plant Kalanchoe in the nose, it will sneeze continuously and its nose will clear. Irrepressible sneezing from Kalanchoe juice lasts 10 minutes, then everything stops.
If a child sneezes, and at the same time a runny nose is not observed, then perhaps this is due to the abundance of nose crusts that interfere with normal breathing, or it is a response of the body to the overdried indoor air. A child will certainly sneeze if he gently tickle the nose or turn on suddenly a bright light in the room.
Occurrence in the morning
In dogs, as in humans, a single sneezing indicates that a foreign particle has got into the nose. Frequent sneezing suggests that it is a symptom of a bacterial or viral infection – plague carnivorous, adenoviroza and other diseases.
Cats sneeze when they have a cold, a cat’s runny nose, leukemia, an allergy, or when they develop polyps in the nose.
Scientists investigated the hypothesis that a man sneezes with more force than a woman. This is only partly true. Thorax involved in sneezing is usually more powerful and better developed in men than in women. However, the power of sneezing depends on various factors, so to say that men sneeze harder is wrong.
The second statement regarding the sneezing reflex says that during sneezing, the heart stops for a short moment. In fact, in the chest, due to the tension of all the muscles, during sneezing, what physiologists call “positive pressure” is formed.
This phenomenon is meant when they say that the heart stops during sneezing.
Another question that is of interest: Why during sneezing can not close your eyes?
It turns out that the speed and pressure of exhaled air are so high that the eyeballs can simply “fly out” from the sockets. The activity of the eye muscles and the muscles responsible for sneezing coordinates the same part of the brain. A spasm that occurs when sneezing affects both muscles simultaneously. Therefore, the eyelids are closed reflexively to protect the eyeballs.
Restrain is harmful
How can I get rid of sneezing?
Even if you restrain him with all your might – the sneezing reflex will be depressed, but not stopped. In addition, if you are sick, for example, with the flu, and you sneeze constantly, then there is no sense in restraining yourself. But if the sneeze is single, and for some reason it is very undesirable to show it, then there is still a means of suppression. To do this, firmly hold the wings of the nose with your fingers when you feel itching in it, and hold it for a few seconds. For a while this will help you sneeze the sneezing reflex.
However, since coughing and sneezing are the protective mechanisms of the body, it is better not to suppress them and not to restrain them. If what should have come out with a sneeze (mucus, microbes, foreign particles, dust) – it turns out not to be on a handkerchief, but will be lagged in the nasopharynx by an effort of will, and under pressure goes into the auditory tubes or sinuses, then self-infection with diseases such as sinusitis or otitis is possible.
Emergence in bright sunlight
Sneezing, which occurs as a result of bright light on the cornea of the eye, is called “reflective sneezing into the light“. Explanations of the mechanism of this phenomenon have not been found, although scientists from ancient times tried to find an answer to this question. Aristotle, for example, believed that people sneeze in the bright sun due to exposure to the nose of the sun’s heat.
In the XVII century, the philosopher Francis Bacon conducted small experiments that showed that if you close your eyes and go out into bright light, the sneezing reflex will not work. Bacon This is explained by the fact that under the action of sunlight, the eyes begin to water, and then this tear fluid enters the nasal passages and causes irritation of the nose. And as a result, a sneezing reflex occurs.
However, modern science has rejected this hypothesis, since physiologists have shown that sneezing occurs too quickly after being exposed to sunlight, and the tear fluid does not have time to drain through the tear ducts into the nasal cavity.
Sneezing occurs as a result of irritation in the nasal cavity, and the trigeminal nerve is “responsible” for it. This nerve is close to the optic nerve. That, in turn, responds to a bright, sudden light that hits the retina of the eye. Immediately after this, the optic nerve transmits a signal to the brain about the need to narrow the pupils in order to adjust the amount of light entering the eyes. The trigeminal nerve perceives this signal as an impulse to irritate the nose. That’s why we sneeze.
People whose pupils are sharply leveled almost always begin to sneeze. And it is not always the case in a bright light – after taking narcotic drugs the pupils begin to lend, therefore, very often, people suffering from drug addiction are also prone to sneezing.
Official statistics do not exist, but according to unofficial observations, reflective sneezing occurs in 20 – 35% of people. But since this phenomenon is absolutely harmless, it has no special significance for medicine.
Surprisingly, some people who have a reflective sneezing, consider it a useful property. It happens that an unpleasant tickling sensation appears in the nose, but its strength is not enough to provoke sneezing. Therefore, such people are just looking for a source of bright light (fit the window or turn on the desk lamp) and cause sneezing, which brings relief. And some people do not even need a source of light, it is enough to imagine it in the imagination so that the reflex will work. By the way, there are other reflexes that work from an imaginary picture. Among them is the reflex of saliva secretion to a sour irritant. In order to cause abundant salivation, it is enough to imagine a juicy, sour lemon sliced into slices.
If surgical intervention is performed in the eye area, local anesthesia is required. For those people who have reflex sneezing, this reflex occurs during injection. Therefore, before the introduction of anesthesia, these people are first injected with sedatives. If this is not done, the patient will sneeze when the doctor makes anesthetic periocular injection, and he will be forced to stop the introduction of the drug in order not to damage the eye.
Most of the time, women of the European race are subject to reflective sneezing, judging by medical evidence.
Another factor that affects the appearance of a sneezing reflex is the degree of fullness of the stomach. Soon after eating nourishing food, such people begin to sneeze repeatedly. It does not matter what kind of food was.
Sneezing and illness
People who often and without apparent reason sneeze are definitely more sensitive than those who sneeze exclusively in the midst of a cold. To understand for some reason why you have long-term sneezing attacks, you should determine your body temperature and check the nasal cavity.
If the nose is itchy, there is a strong itching, but there is no rhinitis, then this is most likely an allergy. If itching in the nose is accompanied by subfebrile or high fever, then this is an acute respiratory illness (or ORVI).
SARS causative agents can be not only viruses, but also bacteria. Recently, doctors are increasingly talking about the so-called viral-bacterial infection. This is a disease in which a viral infection stimulates the development of bacterial flora, which is located on the mucous membranes. These microorganisms colonize the rotavoid cavity, large bronchi, trachea. These are mainly staphylococci, pneumococci, hemophilic bacilli.
Thus, any person is a carrier of many pathogens that, under favorable conditions, cause various diseases. Weakening of immunity is just a favorable condition for the development and reproduction of pathogens.
Bacterial complication of ARVI occurs when microbes get to where they should not be – for example, in the alveoli, lungs, small bronchi. Or in the case when the process of self-purification in mucous membranes is impaired (The epithelial cilia that line the nasal mucosa are responsible for this process.).
Thus, if pathogens hit the nasal mucosa, rhinitis will develop, with laryngeal inflammation – laryngitis, pharynx – pharyngitis, trachea – tracheitis, bronchi – bronchitis, alveoli – pneumonia (pneumonia).
Inflamed nasopharynx, pharynx, larynx – it affects the upper respiratory tract. If the trachea, bronchi, bronchioles and lungs are inflamed, this is a lesion of the lower respiratory tract.
The accession of a bacterial infection to a viral infection is accompanied by intoxication of the body, a secondary increase in temperature, a state of lethargy, or vice versa, psychomotor agitation. If the baby has a strong anxiety in behavior and he completely refuses to feed, then it is possible that he developed acute otitis. The pain in the inflamed ear increases when swallowing, so the child may refuse to eat.
If a child has difficulty breathing, sometimes grunting, it can be assumed that he has bronchitis, bronchiolitis or pneumonia.
Diseases that cause sneezing
- Rhinitis pregnant.
- Allergic rhinitis.
- Vasomotor rhinitis.
Acute respiratory viral infection
This is a disease that occurs when viruses infect the respiratory tract. Pathogens that can cause SARS, there are at least two hundred. The most common of these is the flu virus.
All these types of ARVI are contagious, easily transmitted by air and have similar symptoms:
- Increased temperature.
- Runny nose
- Sore throat.
- Coughing and sneezing.
- General weakness and malaise.
Treatment consists of strengthening the immune system and alleviating the manifestations of the disease. Home bed rest and plenty of warm drinks are recommended to flush toxins and viruses from the body. For these purposes, well-suited fruit juice, tea with lemon, chicken broth, decoctions of herbs.
Symptomatic treatment of the flu is the use of antipyretics. However, if the temperature is subfebrile, that is, it stays at about 37.5 degrees – it is not necessary to shoot it down, it is a protective reaction of the body, produced by it to fight the infection. If the temperature has risen above 38 – this is already an indication for the use of antipyretic drugs. If the temperature does not go astray and stays at such a high level for more than two to three days, then this means that the disease has become complicated.
Influenza is a serious respiratory infection, the course of which is often complicated. If you take antiviral drugs at the first symptoms of an infection, the duration of the disease and the severity of its symptoms is somewhat reduced. This disease is epidemiological in nature. Prevention of influenza should begin before the onset of the cold season, so that immunity has time to get stronger.
Symptomatology is manifested by a sharp increase in temperature, aching muscles, weakness, redness of the skin. Joins in a runny nose, sneezing and coughing. In the first days of the disease, the symptoms are pronounced, and after 3-4 days, the state of health gradually normalizes.
In babies, the symptoms of flu and other respiratory infections are very similar, they are difficult to differentiate from each other. Symptoms such as abdominal pain, diarrhea, vomiting – in adults with the flu is less common, and in children – much more often. The temperature often skips the subfebrile threshold and rises to 38 degrees.
Complications of the flu may include otitis media, bacterial pneumonia, sinus inflammation, asthma, and heart failure.
Colds associated with inflammatory processes in the upper respiratory tract. The common cold occurs when hypothermia occurs. If the immune system is strong, then it will not allow a cold to develop. And if the immune system is weak and unable to resist the disease, the disease develops very quickly.
Signs of a cold disease: fever, headache, unexpressed pain throughout the body, sneezing, runny nose, cough, sore throat.
Treatment of colds is divided into two stages, which include symptomatic therapy and the elimination of the very cause of the disease.
Symptomatic treatment is a struggle with the consequence of the disease. And the suppression of the activity of bacteria and viruses is the elimination of the very cause of the disease. Of course, to make the patient feel better by giving him an antipyretic or expectorant is right, but combating the effect will not eliminate the cause of the disease. Therefore, the most important thing in treatment is the strengthening of immunity, which in turn will lead to the suppression of bacterial flora.
It is an infectious disease of viral origin, with an acute course. The danger of the disease is that it is extremely contagious. Measles is characterized by signs of intoxication of the body, a sharp rise in temperature, a rash on the body, inflammation of the mucous membranes of the upper respiratory tract and oral cavity, conjunctivitis.
Morbillivirus (measles pathogen), unstable in the environment, and quickly dies under the influence of disinfection measures (boiling, disinfectant treatment, sterilization). However, there were precedents when the measles virus spread, for example, through the ventilation system in one building where there was a large crowd of people. Best of all, morbillivirus is stored in low temperatures (from -15 to -20 degrees). Therefore, outbreaks of the disease occur mainly in the winter.
Morbillivirus is transmitted by air during coughing or sneezing, along with secretory mucus. Children are ill mainly. Adults get sick if they have not been ill in childhood, and, accordingly, have not received immunity. After recovery, immunity to this disease persists throughout life.
Newborns receive short-term immunity from their previously ill mother, which persists for the first three months of life. If the mother fell ill during pregnancy, then the child is threatened with a transplacental infection with measles virus.
Measles prevention is a total vaccination of children.
The entrance gate for infection is the mucous membranes in the upper respiratory tract. Once inside, the pathogen begins to multiply and spread through the bloodstream. In the tonsils, lymph nodes, liver, spleen, intestines, lungs inflammatory infiltrates are formed.
The next stage of the disease is the appearance of visible symptoms. There are catarrhal phenomena, runny nose, cough, sneezing. Then rashes appear on the body.
The virus infects the conjunctiva, larynx, pharynx, sometimes the bronchi or the lungs. Inflammation can affect the central nervous system, which can cause complications of the disease, such as meningoencephalitis and meningitis. Catarrhal inflammation in the affected organs, due to the multiplication of the virus and the production of antibodies against it by the immune system, takes an infectious-allergic character.
The latent period of development of measles ranges from 7 to 14 days. The course of the disease can occur in typical form or atypical.
There are three stages of the disease, which are manifested by the corresponding symptoms:
- Catarrhal phenomena.
The first stage of measles – catarrhal – begins sharply. A sick person feels a headache, a change in appetite, and sleep may be disturbed. Body temperature rises to 39, sometimes up to 40 degrees. A runny nose is very profuse mucous discharge from the nose sometimes has an admixture of pus. Barking cough, hoarseness, sneezing, and swelling of the eyelids are all vivid symptoms of measles. Eyes become extremely sensitive to bright light. The eyelids in the morning stick together from discharge from the eyes.
Visual inspection shows an increase in cervical lymph nodes. In the lungs dry rales are heard. Some patients have short diarrhea.
A few days after the rash appears, the patient’s condition is relieved. The temperature decreases, but literally in a day – two rises again. After the temperature rises again on the inner shell of the cheeks, spots in the form of “semolina” are found – white round rashes with a thin red border. This is a clear clinical sign of measles.
Symptoms of intoxication are increasing, the state of health worsens. Changes in the work of the digestive system are observed.
There are bright spotted rash, which can merge into one large spot. First, the rash appears behind the auricles, on the hair part of the head, then passes to the neck and face. The day after the onset of the rash, the spots go over to the chest, torso and arms. After another day, the spots appear on the lower limbs, and those that were on the face become less bright.
Such a downward “spotting” is a characteristic differential symptom that doctors use in the formulation of the diagnosis. Adults suffer the disease much more severely than children, and their rash is more abundant.
During rashes, catalysis is aggravated: runny nose, sneezing, coughing, lacrimation, and photophobia. Examination reveals such violations as a rapid heartbeat and a change in the higher or lower side of the “working” blood pressure.
Reconvalescence (the so-called pigmentation period) – This is the third stage of the disease, which is characterized by improved well-being, normalization of body temperature, weakening of catarrhal phenomena. Gradually, the spots of eruptions turn pale and fade. In their place, peeling forms, which are slightly different in color from the rest of the skin.
The course of measles can be complicated by pneumonia, laryngitis, tracheobronchitis, stomatitis. In adults, meningitis, meningoencephalitis and measles encephalitis may develop.
Chickenpox (or chicken pox) is an acute infectious disease that spreads by air. A virus that causes chickenpox can also cause herpes zoster. Chickenpox is the primary manifestation of the infection that children suffer, and herpes is a secondary manifestation that usually occurs as an adult.
The virus is not resistant to the environment, it is sensitive to ultraviolet radiation and disinfectants. Well preserved in an environment with low temperature. Therefore, the incidence of chicken pox increases in winter.
The disease is considered highly contagious, transmitted by air through sneezing or coughing. Children are ill mainly. Adults who have been ill in childhood retain a lifelong immunity.
The virus penetrates the respiratory tract, multiplies there and accumulates, appears in the blood and lymph, then enters the epithelium of the skin. From this, superficial necrosis is formed in the epithelium, which has the appearance of characteristic rashes. Usually these rashes disappear without a trace. The exception is when the epithelium is damaged in the deeper layer due to re-infection or when the integrity of the vesicles (rashes) was broken. Therefore, it is important to explain to sick children that they do not comb out the rash and do not peel off the crusts.
- Hidden period (can last up to three weeks).
- Prodromal period (at this time, the person becomes contagious, that is, infectious to others).
- The period of appearance of the vesicles (appearance of overt symptoms).
Common symptoms: rash, fever, malaise. Rashes appear on the face, then spread further along the body. Look like single or multiple formations.
Bubbles (chickenpox acne) soft to the touch. A couple of days after they appear, they burst on their own or dry up, leaving dark crusts that peel off after a week or two.
Elements of the rash can be observed on the mucous surface of the nose, cornea of the eyes, mouth, larynx, vagina.
The first thing to do after having been diagnosed with chickenpox is to organize an isolated room at home or in the hospital. Chickenpox is a very contagious disease, so in this case isolation from other people is a necessary measure.
To avoid the appearance of a secondary infection, the vesicles should be treated with a solution of brilliant green or a solution of potassium permanganate. In case of complications, the appointment of antiviral drugs is recommended. If the disease is complicated by a bacterial infection, then antibiotics are used.
Preventing chicken pox in a team where a case of illness has been identified is the isolation of the sick person, thorough disinfection of the room, and, if possible, the establishment of quarantine. Against chickenpox, children and adults are vaccinated who have not had a previous illness and are working under conditions of increased risk of infection (doctors, teachers, catering workers).
Allergic diseases are an increased immune response that is formed as a response to the effects of specific environmental factors that the body considers dangerous or potentially dangerous.
The immune response of the body is formed as a complex defense mechanism, the role of which is to prevent the hostile microorganisms from penetrating and multiplying.
Immunity in response to the invasion of microbes includes a mechanism for the production of antibodies that destroy specific substances in the body – antigens.
Sometimes the body’s reaction to harmless substances is distorted, and it perceives them as a threat. These reactions are hypersensitive, and antigens that are responsible for the appearance of these reactions are called allergens.
Immunity can “memorize” foreign substances, recognize them and produce antibodies to neutralize antigens. If a similar antigen enters the body again, then the immunity will be able to recognize it and attack with already developed specific antibodies.
Allergic reactions manifest in various ways, they can affect various tissues and organs of the body. The severity of an allergic reaction varies widely.
Allergy symptoms occur when a person is exposed to an allergen. Often, allergy occurs in those who are genetically predisposed to it. Itching in the eyes and on the skin, runny nose, sneezing, hives are all common allergy symptoms.
Sneezing is a physiological method of self-purification of the body from unnecessary substances or particles, which is somewhat modified during allergies. The sneezing reflex takes paroxysmal form – a person sneezes without stopping every day. This is especially common during the flowering period of plants whose pollen is a strong allergen.
When allergies are sometimes observed and rhinorrhea (runny nose). If during a cold mucous discharge from the nose usually has a thick consistency and a yellowish color, then with allergies – the color is transparent, and the consistency is watery.
Since the mucous membrane in allergy inflames and becomes more dense, the nasal canal is blocked, which leads to poor outflow of mucous secretions. Purging does not help clear the nose.
Allergic rash is the most striking manifestation of the disease, which is characterized by the formation of reddish spots on the skin of various sizes. Spots can pour out and on the hands, and on the face, and on the legs. Most often, the rash is accompanied by severe itching, causing serious discomfort to the sick person.
Itchy eyes are another symptom of allergy. The sensation of an itch arises without any external reasons; a person may not be able to eliminate it for a long time. The eyelids at the same time have a swollen, reddened, full face.
Allergic and Vasomotor Rhinitis
Inflammation of the mucous membrane lining the nasal cavity – rhinitis – one of the most common human ailments. There are several clinical forms of rhinitis, each of which has its own characteristics.
Vasomotor and allergic forms of rhinitis are very similar in their clinical manifestations:
- Labored breathing.
- Bouts of sneezing.
- Runny nose
- Burning and itching in the nasal cavity.
Allergic rhinitis is a chronic disease, it is based on an indirect inflammatory reaction, which is triggered by allergic agents on the nasal mucosa.
Vasomotor rhinitis is also a chronic disease, but in this case, nasal hypersensitivity does not develop under the influence of allergic factors, but as a result of nonspecific endogenous or exogenous factors.
When making a diagnosis and drawing up a treatment algorithm, it is necessary to clarify the following points:
- Are there any abnormalities in the structure of the nose, which can also give a clinical picture of rhinitis?
- Revealed rhinitis has an infectious or non-infectious genesis? The answer to this question is the characteristic clinical sequence of the onset of symptoms, the nature of mucous discharge, the appearance of catarrhal phenomena in the larynx, pharynx, and trachea.
- If rhinitis has non-infectious genesis, then is it allergic or non-allergic? In favor of the fact that rhinitis has an allergic origin, the following facts testify: during rhinoscopy a poor-gray shade of the mucous membrane is visualized, a positive reaction was obtained to special skin allergic tests, antibodies were detected in the blood serum.
- If rhinitis is allergic, then what is the nature of its manifestation: seasonal, permanent? These data are obtained by collecting anamnesis.
Sequential clarification of the above nuances allows you to accurately determine the form of the disease and select the optimal treatment algorithm.
According to the severity of rhinitis emit:
- Light form (mild clinical symptoms of rhinitis, which do not disrupt the daily activity of a person and do not interfere with his sleep). The patient feels the presence of symptoms of the disease, but at the same time can do without medication.
- Moderate form (symptoms of the disease interfere with sleep, interfere with mental and physical activity, the quality of life seriously deteriorates).
- Heavy form (symptoms are so pronounced that the patient can not engage in any activity, can not sleep properly if he does not receive appropriate therapy).
Treatment of allergic rhinitis is to assign the patient:
- Topical corticosteroids.
- Antihistamine drugs that allow to stop allergic attacks. Most of these drugs eliminate bouts of persistent sneezing, burning in the nose, runny nose.
Corticosteroid preparations are characterized by a delayed onset of action. These features of pharmacokinetics allow the use of corticosteroids with a very low risk of systemic effects.
There are other groups of drugs used to treat allergic rhinitis, but judging by their effectiveness in relieving individual symptoms, the degree of risk of complications, and the cost of a course of treatment, oral antihistamines and topical corticosteroids can be considered as optimal therapy.
Treatment of vasomotor rhinitis begins with the identification of all possible causes that may lead to the appearance of a nasal reaction.
Often, vasomotor rhinitis is formed due to the abnormal structure of the nasal septum. In this case, the treatment is carried out with the help of surgical intervention.
Drug therapy for vasomotor rhinitis is the appointment of antihistamines to the patient (although they do not give such an effect as in allergic rhinitis) and topical corticosteroids. Additionally, you can use physiotherapeutic methods of treatment (for example, intranasal electrophoresis) and acupuncture. Patients are shown general strengthening procedures – hardening, exercise.
If conservative therapies do not produce a visible effect, then surgical treatment is applied. It consists in carrying out operations that result in artificially reducing the size of the lower turbinate, which allows nasal breathing to be restored.
Rhinitis that occurs in women in the last stages of pregnancy is a consequence of the fact that hormonal changes occur in a woman’s body before labor. The amount of female sex hormones increases in the blood, and in parallel with this, the blood flow speeds up. Because of this, the mucous membrane swells, which leads to difficulty breathing.
The course of rhinitis is different: from mild symptoms to complications that require medical treatment.
From the fact that the nose is blocked and breathing is disturbed – the lungs and the heart are affected. In addition, the nose does not perform its main functions: it does not purify and does not warm the air that is inhaled, thereby exposing the lungs to the harmful effects of the external environment.
For a pregnant woman, such a state creates a double danger – both for her and for the fetus. If nasal breathing is absent, this leads to oxygen starvation of the mother, which is extremely negative for the future baby. As a result of rhinitis, a woman undergoes a change in taste and smell, and an allergy develops.
The complexity of rhinitis lies in the fact that for its removal it is impossible to use vasoconstrictor drops, because they exert their effect on the entire body, including the vessels in the placenta through which the fetus feeds. Violation of the placental circulation leads to fetal hypoxia.
In addition, these tools can increase nosebleeds, which sometimes occur in pregnant women. And with prolonged use, they dry the nasal mucosa, and gradually cease to cope with their main function. Therefore, drops, relieving nasal congestion, are contraindicated in pregnant women.
The severity of the treatment of rhinitis in pregnant women lies in the fact that so many medicines can affect the placental circulation, therefore, it is necessary to approach the choice of the drug very carefully. Ideally, medication is generally best not to use.
One of the main tools used to treat pregnant rhinitis is a nasal shower. This is the procedure by which the nasal cavity is washed. Thanks to washing, the nose and nasopharynx are cleared of microbes, allergens, mucus, dust. Puffiness of the mucous membranes and inflammation is removed, which allows nasal breathing to be restored.
Disruption of the sneezing reflex
Sneezing is disturbed in people who suffer bulbar paralysis.
Bulbar palsy is a pathology that occurs when the nuclei of certain cranial nerves are damaged (wandering, hypoglossal, glossopharyngeal). Manifesting bulbar paralysis speech disorder (affected nerves responsible for articulation) and a violation of swallowing (affected structures responsible for swallowing – the muscles of the tongue, pharynx, larynx, epiglottis, soft palate).
Patients often puffed liquid food, and it happens that they are not able to make a swallowing movement. Because of this, saliva accumulates and flows from the corners of the mouth. They can not sneeze and cough. Speech becomes slurred, nasal, slow. The conversation noticeably tires the sick.
In seriously ill patients, respiratory rhythm disorders are usually formed and cardiac activity is disturbed, which can lead to death.
Bulbar syndrome is characteristic of genetic diseases (porphyria, Kennedy disease), for oncological, for vascular, for inflammatory-infectious diseases.
To which doctor to treat when sneezing?
Since sneezing can be provoked by various diseases, it is necessary to apply to the appearance of this symptom by different specialists, whose competence includes the diagnosis and treatment of the affected organ. That is, in each case, in order to understand which doctor to turn to when sneezing, it is necessary to assess which organ is affected and presumably provokes sneezing. And to suspect the defeat of an organ when sneezing is possible on the basis of the person’s accompanying symptoms. Accordingly, in each case, the decision of which doctor to turn to depends on the symptoms associated with sneezing that a person has.
If sneezing in an adult or child is frequent (several times within 2-3 hours), and there is itching in the nose, runny nose, pain, tingling in the throat, general malaise or increased body temperature, and possibly reddening of the eyes , coughing, wheezing, this indicates an acute respiratory illness (ARI), flu, a cold. In this case, you need to contact adults general practitioner (to make an appointment), and children – to pediatrician (enroll).
If sneezing, in addition to the symptoms of acute respiratory infections, is combined with rashes on the body and face of any kind, quantity and character, then an infectious disease (measles, rubella, chickenpox) is suspicious. In this case, it is recommended to contact either infectious diseases doctor (to sign up), either to the therapist.
If a child or adult for a long time (longer than 10-14 days in a row) suffers from a cold, which is accompanied by regular sneezing, but there are no additional symptoms, then most likely it is chronic rhinitis (vasomotor, atrophic and etc.). In such a situation it is recommended to refer to otolaryngologist (ENT) (register).
If an adult or a child begins to sneeze often, but there is no cold or nasal discharge clear and watery, and other signs of respiratory infection (pain, sore throat, general malaise or fever, etc.) are not observed. , but there is a strong congestion and itching of the nose, perhaps a rash on the skin, eye redness, itching of the skin and eyes, then, most likely, this indicates an allergic reaction. In this case, you should contact allergist (to sign up) or, in his absence, to the therapist.
If a person has frequent sneezing against the background of highly constricted pupils or any other signs of drug intoxication (for example, causeless gaiety or vice versa insensitivity, apathy, poorly coordinated movements, etc.), then drug addiction is suspicious. In this case, it is recommended to contact doctor-narcologist (sign up).
If rhinitis with sneezing occurs in pregnant women in the later periods, it is recommended to apply simultaneously to gynecologist (to sign up) and otolaryngologist.
If a person cannot sneeze and cough, and at the same time his speech and swallowing movements are impaired, as a result of which his voice is nasal, slurred, and when he eats and drinks, he chokes and saliva flows from the corners of his mouth, then bulbar syndrome is suspected. In this case, you should contact doctor-neurologist (sign up).
What tests and examinations can a doctor prescribe when sneezing?
Sneezing is provoked by diseases of various organs and systems, and, accordingly, in the presence of this symptom, the doctor may prescribe a variety of studies and tests, a specific list of which depends on the damage of which organ is suspected by a specialist. Indeed, for the detection of diseases of various organs, various methods of examination are used, both laboratory (analyzes) and instrumental (Ultrasound (enroll), x-ray, endoscopy (enroll) etc.).
When an adult or a child often sneezes and, in addition to sneezing, there are symptoms of acute respiratory illness, flu or a cold (runny nose, pain, sore throat, general malaise or fever, as well as redness of the eyes, coughing, wheezing), and also a rash on the body – the doctor suspects a cold or acute infectious disease (measles, rubella, chickenpox, etc.). In this case, it is usually assigned only complete blood count (enroll) and urine to assess the general condition of the patient. Other tests and examinations, as a rule, are not prescribed, since the diagnosis is made on the basis of a characteristic clinical picture. In the case of a skin rash, if the doctor has doubts about the diagnosis, a blood test may be given to identify the causative agents of measles, rubella, chickenpox, etc.
When sneezing is provoked by a runny nose existing for a long period, chronic rhinitis is suspected, in which case the otolaryngologist will necessarily produce rhinoscopy (enroll) (examination of the nasal cavity with a special tool – rhinoscope). If necessary, the doctor can examine the pharynx and larynx with the help of instruments. In the overwhelming majority of cases, rhinoscopy is sufficient to make a diagnosis and start treatment, and therefore other tests for chronic rhinitis, as a rule, are not prescribed. Laboratory tests for chronic rhinitis are usually not prescribed, since the disease does not provoke changes in any indicators of blood, urine or other biological fluids. But the doctor can prescribe a general analysis of blood and urine to assess the general condition of the body, as well as a blood test for IgE levels to confirm the allergic nature of rhinitis (but this analysis is prescribed only if there is a suspicion of allergic rhinitis).
However, if we are talking about rhinitis of pregnant women, then, in addition to rhinoscopy, the doctor may prescribe blood tests for estriol, estradiol, progesterone, as well as an assessment of autonomic tone, since these studies are necessary for the subsequent selection of the most effective treatment regimen.
If chronic rhinitis exists for a long time (longer than several months), then the doctor may prescribe endoscopy and rhinopneumometry to assess the condition of the tissues of the nasal cavity. However, these studies are assigned and carried out relatively rarely.
If an adult or a child has constant sneezing, and the nasal cavity is dry or watery, transparent contents are emitted from it, there are no signs of ORZ, but the nose is itchy, there is a strong nasal congestion, it is possible that a rash appears on the body, eyes turn red, itchy skin, This indicates an allergic origin of sneezing. In this case, the doctor prescribes the following tests:
- Complete blood count with leucoformula (enroll)
- Blood test for IgE concentration
- Analysis of sensitivity to various allergens using skin tests (to register), produced by the method of scarification or prik-test
- Hypersensitivity analysis of various allergens by determining the concentration of specific IgE in the blood (guinea pig, rabbit, hamster, rat, mouse, latex, orange, kiwi, mango, pineapple, banana, apple, peach, ambrosia, common wormwood, mari white, plantain, Russian thistle, fragrant spike, perennial rye, timothy, cultural rye, woolly bukharnik, house dust and house dust mites).
A general blood test is required, as well as a sensitivity analysis to allergens by any method that a medical institution is able to produce. That is, depending on the technical capabilities, an analysis of sensitivity to antigens is carried out either by skin tests or by determining specific IgE in the blood. The skin test method is less accurate, but simpler and cheaper, and therefore is used most often. A method for determining specific IgE in the blood is expensive, although very accurate, but is used more rarely because of the high cost of reagents.
Complete blood count is necessary to assess the general condition of the body and confirm allergic readiness (a large number of eosinophils). A sensitivity analysis of antigens is needed in order to understand what kind of substance provokes an allergic reaction.
A blood test for an IgE concentration is not always prescribed, as it only reveals that a person is allergic to a substance. But the fact of the presence of allergies can be determined by a general blood test, therefore, for allergic rhinitis and sneezing, a blood test for IgE is rarely used.
When frequent sneezing is present against the background of highly constricted pupils or any other signs of drug intoxication (for example, causeless gaiety or vice versa insensitivity, lethargy, poorly coordinated movements, etc.), then drug intoxication is suspected. In this case, the doctor prescribes a urine or blood test to determine the presence of various narcotic and psychoactive substances (for example, opiates, amphetamine, methamphetamine, cocaine, cannabinoids, etc.).
When a person hardly sneezes and coughs, or cannot do it at all, although such an urge is felt, while his speech is nasal, slurred, slowed down, when he tries to swallow something, he chokes and saliva constantly flows out of the corners of the mouth, then it is suspected bulbar syndrome. In this case, the doctor makes a neurological test, which is enough for a diagnosis. After this, the doctor prescribes the following examinations, which are necessary to determine which disease has led to bulbar paralysis:
- Cerebrospinal fluid examination
- Computer (to enroll) or magnetic resonance imaging of the brain (to sign up)
- X-ray of the junction of the skull with the spine.
In addition, general and biochemical blood tests (to sign up), urinalysis, as well as blood tests for the presence of pathogens of various infections.