Properties and applications
Thermopsis grows in Siberia, in the south-west of the Urals, in Yakutia, Mongolia and Tibet. The plant has a sharp unpleasant smell, and its fruits are poisonous. In medicine, only the land part of the plant is used, which is harvested during the flowering period. When thermopsis forms a fruit, the plant becomes unsuitable for use as a raw material for the manufacture of medicines.
The herb of thermopsis contains five types of alkaloids (thermopsine, homotermopsin, methylcytizine, pahikarpin and anagirin), which have a different effect on the human body. In addition, the plant contains saponins, tannins, resins, mucus, essential oil, and ascorbic acid, which also affect the human body in a certain way. However, the main active substances contained in thermopsis are five alkaloids, and all the others only complement their effects.
Thermopsis has an expectorant effect, diluting sputum and facilitating its excretion from the respiratory tract. The fact is that the alkaloid thermopsin increases the production of mucus on the surface of the respiratory tract, so that the sputum liquefies and is more easily removed when coughing. In addition, thermopsin enhances the reduction of the bronchi, which also contributes to the removal of sputum.
When used in high dosages, thermopsis has an emetic effect that is superior in strength to ipecac.
In addition, thermopsis stimulates breathing and increases blood pressure.
The main scope of application of thermopsis in medicine is as an expectorant for tracheitis, bronchitis, bronchopneumonia or catarrh of the upper respiratory tract with viscous sputum.
In folk medicine, thermopsis is used not only as an expectorant, but also as anthelmintic, as well as relieving headaches and eliminating intestinal atony.
Since thermopsis is a poisonous plant, it is necessary to use drugs based on it with great care, not exceeding the maximum allowable dosages.
Thermopsis dosage forms and preparations
Dosage forms of thermopsis. In practical medicine, thermopsis herb is used in the following forms:
- Thermopsis Herb Infusion
- Dry extract for oral administration
- Dry herb powder for brewing infusion for ingestion (cough syrup)
- Tablets containing dry extract of thermopsis.
Currently, the most popular pills containing dry herb extract, and cough syrup. Infusion and dry herb extract are used much less frequently due to certain inconveniences associated with preparing a ready-to-use solution.
Tablets with thermopsis. Currently, there are the following tablets containing a dry extract of thermopsis:
- Antitusin (only in Ukraine)
- Tablets of grass thermopsis 0.01 g and sodium bicarbonate 0.25 g
- Cough tablets
In addition, thermopsis as one of the components is part of such complex drugs as Amtersol, Codelac, Codelac Broncho, Codelac Phyto.
Indications for use
Instructions for use
Instructions for use herbs thermopsis (infusion thermopsis)
From the dry grass thermopsis prepare infusion, which is taken orally. For children under 2 years old, it is the thermopsis infusion that is the optimal form of the drug. For children over 2 years old and adults, infusion is one of the possible options for using a thermopsis to facilitate sputum discharge for respiratory diseases.
Infusion is prepared equally for children and adults, and its dosage varies depending on the person’s age. So, an infusion for children under 6 years old is prepared in a ratio of 0.2 g of grass per 200 ml of water. And the infusion for children over 6 years old and adults is prepared in the ratio of 0.6 g of grass per 200 ml of water. Accordingly, if it is intended to use infusion for a child under 6 years old, then it should be prepared in the proportion of 0.2 g of grass per 200 ml of water. If the infusion will be used by an adult or a child over 6 years old, then it is prepared at the rate of 0.6 g of grass per 200 ml of water.
To prepare an infusion for an adult or a child, the required amount (0.2 g or 0.6 g) of dry grass of thermopsis should be crushed to obtain particles no larger than 5 mm. Pour 200 ml of warm water into the prepared mass of crushed grass and heat it in a water bath for 15 minutes in a closed container. After this, the infusion is cooled and filtered. Ready infusion stored in the refrigerator for no longer than 2 – 3 days.
"Child" infusion give babies in the following dosages depending on age:
- Children aged 4 – 12 months – give a teaspoon (5 ml) of the infusion 2 to 3 times a day
- Children aged 1 – 6 years – Give a dessert spoon (10 ml) of the infusion 3-4 times a day.
Children over 6 years old and adults are given "adult" infusion (0.6 g herb per 200 ml) in the following dosages:
- Children aged 6 – 12 years – give a teaspoonful (5 ml) of the infusion 3-4 times a day
- Adults and teenagers over 12 years old – give a tablespoon of infusion (15 ml) 3 – 4 times a day.
Infusion must be taken at least three days. The duration of therapy depends on the rate at which the symptoms disappear and averages 3–5 days.
Thermopsis dry extract is a standardized herb powder and lactose. The powder can be taken by adults and children over 6 years old. For oral administration, the required amount of extract of thermopsis is diluted in 15-50 ml of non-carbonated boiled cooled water, and the resulting solution is drunk.
The extract should be taken in the following dosages depending on age:
- Children aged 6 – 12 years – take on 0,025 g of powder 2 to 3 times a day
- Adolescents over 12 years old and adults – take 0.05 g of powder 2 to 3 times a day.
Extract must be taken at least three days. The duration of therapy depends on the rate at which the symptoms disappear and averages 3–5 days.
Dry cough syrup
Designed for use by adults and adolescents over 12 years. As an exception, it can be used to treat cough in children from the age of 6 years. The mixture is taken internally after the preliminary dilution of the contents of the bag in chilled boiled water.
Children 6 – 12 years old It is recommended to dilute half of the contents of the package at one time and give the mixture 3 to 4 times a day. Adolescents over 12 years old and adults must take a solution from one whole package of the mixture 3 to 4 times a day.
The mixture must be taken at least three days. The duration of therapy depends on the rate at which the symptoms disappear and averages 3–5 days.
It should be remembered that the maximum permissible single dosage of the drug is 0.1 g in terms of the active substance, which corresponds to 14 bags of powder. The maximum daily dosage is 0.3 g of the active substance, which corresponds to 42 bags of powder.
Tablets with thermopsis – instructions for use
All tablets with thermopsis (cough pills, Thermopsol, Antitusin) contain the same active substances, and therefore are also used in exactly the same way. Therefore, the term "pills with thermopsis" we will mean all tableted drugs.
So, tablets with thermopsis are designed for adolescents over 12 years old and adults, but as an exception and if necessary, they can also be used for the treatment of children over 6 years old. Tablets must be swallowed whole with a large amount of water (at least half a glass).
Tablets should be taken in the following dosages depending on age:
- Children 6 – 12 years old – take 1/2 tablet 3 times a day for 3 – 5 days
- Adolescents over 12 years old and adults – take 1 tablet 3 times a day for 3 to 5 days.
The duration of taking pills with thermopsis should be at least 3 days, but otherwise the duration of therapy is determined by the speed of recovery and the disappearance of cough.
It should be remembered that the maximum permissible single dosage of the drug is 0.1 g in terms of the active substance, which corresponds to 14 tablets. The maximum daily dosage is 0.3 g of the active substance, which corresponds to 42 tablets.
Thermopsis with soda
Influence on ability to operate mechanisms
Interaction with other drugs
Preparations with thermopsis can not be used simultaneously with products containing codeine or other antitussive components, since this will make sputum difficult and cause it to accumulate in the lumen of the respiratory tract.
Sorbents (for example, Polyphepan, Polysorb, Filtrum, Enterosgel, etc.), astringents and coating agents (for example, De-Nol, Almagel, Maalox, etc.) impair the absorption of the active alkaloids of thermopsis. Therefore, between the intake of these drugs and thermopsis should be kept for an interval of 1 to 2 hours. That is, thermopsis should be taken either 1–2 hours after, or 1–2 hours before sorbents, enveloping or astringent preparations.
Cough tablets should not be used simultaneously with drugs containing codeine (Quintalgin, Caffetin, Codelmict, Codterpin, Nurofen Plus, Parcocet, Pentabufen, Prohodol forte, Terkodin, Terpinkod, Tedein) and others antitussive drugs (Dextromethorphan, Prenoxdiazine), because it makes coughing up sputum difficult.
Tablets with thermopsis for children
According to the official instructions for use, all tablets with thermopsis (cough pills, Thermopsol, Antitusin) can be used to treat only children over 12 years of age. However, experienced pediatricians prescribe pills with thermopsis to children from 6 years in half dosage. This practice is due not to the incompetence of doctors, but to the peculiarities of legislation on writing instructions and the discrepancy between the real state of affairs and formal requirements.
So, in order to indicate in the instructions the possibility of using the drug for children under 12 years old, the manufacturer must conduct clinical trials proving the safety of the drug. For obvious ethical reasons, they do not. However, in practice, if the drug can be considered safe on the basis of experimental animal studies, it should be carefully prescribed to children if necessary. Next, pediatricians and doctors of other specialties monitor children’s reactions to the drug, and when a large number of observations accumulate, they conclude that the medicine is safe or insecure. As a rule, if on the basis of a large number of observations the drug has been deemed safe, it is prescribed to children.
But the manufacturer of the drug still has to write in the instructions that it cannot be used for children, since the results of many years of observation are not sufficient grounds for recognizing safety. Indeed, to change the instructions, it is necessary to conduct clinical trials. Thus, a paradoxical situation is obtained – the drug is used in children’s practice and observation proved its safety, and the instruction states the prohibition of use for children. This is the situation that has developed around thermopsis tablets – observations have shown that they can be used from 6 years old, and in the instructions the manufacturer should indicate the age limit from 12 years.
Children 6 – 12 years old Give 1/2 of any pills with thermopsis 3 times a day. Teenagers over 12 years old give 1 whole tablet with thermopsis 3 times a day. The duration of therapy is determined by the rate of recovery, but it should not be less than 3 days.
Tablets need to drink plenty of water. And during the entire period of therapy, drink plenty of warm fluid.
The maximum single dosage of tablets with thermopsis for children 6 – 12 years is 7 pieces, and for adolescents over 12 years old – 14 pieces. The maximum daily dosage of tablets for children 6–12 years old is 21 pieces, and for teenagers over 12 years old – 42 pieces.
Use during pregnancy
Thermopsis grass contains alkaloid pahikarpin, which increases the contractile activity of the uterus and increases its tone, so all drugs containing this medicinal plant are prohibited for use during pregnancy, because their reception can cause miscarriage or premature birth.
In some cases, as an exception, preparations containing thermopsis are allowed to be used by women who are carrying a child, but not earlier than after 36 weeks of gestation. That is, in fact, it is very limited and cautious that thermopsis preparations can be used only during the last 4 weeks of pregnancy.
Analogs of thermopsis are drugs that also have an expectorant effect and contribute to the removal of sputum from the respiratory tract.
So, at present, the following drugs-analogues of thermopsis are available on the domestic pharmaceutical market:
- Althaea syrup, dry extract
- Amtersol syrup
- Anise ordinary fruit
- Ledumberry marsh shoots
- Bronhikum oral drops, elixir
- Bronhikum With lozenges and syrup
- Bronhikum TP syrup and elixir
- Bronchipret drops for oral administration, syrup
- Bronchipret TP tablets
- Gedelix drops for oral administration and syrup
- Herbion syrup
- Breast fees №1, №2, №3, №4
- Breast Elixir
- Elecampane rhizomes and roots raw
- Dr. Mom syrup, pastilles
- Dr. Theiss Aniseed Oil Capsules
- Dr. Theiss bronchosept drops for oral administration
- Dr. Theiss syrup with plantain syrup
- Dr. Theiss Eucalyptus Ointment
- Oregano Herb Extract and Raw Materials
- Cook syrup
- Linker syrup
- Coltsfoot sheet raw
- Mukaltin tablets
- Ammoniac anisic drops
- Pectusin tablets
- Pertussin oral solution, syrup
- Plantain leaf large raw material
- Plantain tincture
- Prospan syrup and drops for oral administration.
- Protyazin Expectorant Syrup
- Syetosum drops for oral administration
- Cough syrup with plantain and coltsfoot
- Licorice root raw
- Licorice Syrup and Extract
- Pine buds raw materials
- Stoptussin-Phyto Syrup
- Suprima-Broncho Syrup
- Travisil tablets, syrup and oral solution
- Tussamag syrup and drops for oral administration
- Tussin syrup
- Violets Herb Raw Material and Extract
- Fitantis collecting vegetable
- Fitolor pastilles and syrup
- Phytopectol number 1 and number 2 collection of vegetable
- Thyme grass raw
- Evkabal syrup and emulsion for inhalation.
Reviews of preparations Thermopsis
The overwhelming majority of reviews of thermopsis preparations are positive (over 95%), which is due to their high efficiency. The reviews indicate that Thermopsis drugs effectively cure coughs and remove sputum from the respiratory tract, even in severely recurrent, protracted illnesses.
Negative reviews of thermopsis drugs are literally a few, and they are usually caused by the ineffectiveness of the drug in a particular case.
Thermopsis (grass, pills, Thermopsis with soda) – price
Author: Nasedkina A.K. Specialist in conducting research on biomedical problems.