Lymph node ultrasound is a type of instrumental study of lymph nodes, based on the ability of ultrasonic waves to penetrate tissues, reflect from the structures of organs to create a visible image on the monitor of the scanner apparatus.
What is an ultrasound of the lymph nodes? Brief description of the method
Ultrasound – This is an ultrasound, which is based on the use of sound waves with a high frequency of oscillation to obtain images of various organs and systems. The method of ultrasound research is based on the fact that a special apparatus (ultrasound scanner) emits high-frequency (ultrasonic) waves, which are partially absorbed by biological structures, are partially reflected and partially refracted. Refracted and reflected waves pass through the tissue back to the skin and are trapped by the same sensor that emits them. Then, in the ultrasound scanner, the processing of the waves that have passed through the tissue and which have returned, occurs, and they are converted into an image that the doctor sees on the monitor of the device. It is this image obtained with the help of ultrasonic waves that is analyzed by the doctor, since it represents "picture" investigated tissues or organs.
Depending on the depth of location of the studied organs, sensors are used for the production of ultrasounds with different frequencies of the emitted waves, since they can penetrate to different depths. So, for the production of ultrasound of the lymph nodes are usually used sensors 3 – 12 MHz, since they allow you to get a high-quality image of lymphoid tissue. It must be remembered that the closer to the surface of the skin lie lymph nodes, the less frequency of waves you need to use the sensor. For example, sensors of 5–12 MHz are used to study cervical lymph nodes that are close to the surface of the skin. And for the study of intra-abdominal lymph nodes located deep in the body cavity, sensors of 3–5 MHz are used.
The image of the lymph nodes, which the doctor sees on the screen during the production of ultrasound, allows you to count their number, assess the size, shape, texture, elasticity, contours, structure and their relationship with the surrounding tissues. Evaluation of various parameters of the lymph nodes allows you to identify various pathologies, such as, for example, inflammatory changes, cysts, metastases or tumors, etc. Ultrasound of the lymph nodes is a very important study for diagnostics tumor process in various organs, and metastases.
Ultrasound of the lymph nodes is a painless and safe study that does not cause discomfort and discomfort to the patient. But, despite the safety, good tolerability and the absence of unpleasant sensations, ultrasound of the lymph nodes is a highly informative method for diagnosing various pathologies. Due to the high information content and safety, ultrasound is assigned quite often to people regardless of age and condition (including pregnant women, the elderly, children, debilitated patients, etc.).
Ultrasound of the lymph nodes is carried out in the presence of various diseases of any organ that can cause pathology of the nearby lymphoid tissue. For example, if a person suffers from inflammatory processes in the mouth, nasal cavity or ears, then this can provoke a pathology of the cervical or submandibular lymph nodes. Accordingly, ultrasound of the lymph nodes is performed when their pathology is suspicious due to other pathological changes in nearby organs or in the body as a whole. When the diagnosis is established, ultrasound of the lymph nodes can be performed to assess the effectiveness of therapy and control over the course of the disease.
As part of preventive examinations, ultrasound of the lymph nodes is usually not performed, as this is not necessary. After all, as a rule, pathological changes in the lymph nodes are secondary, and are due to any pathology of an organ.
What does a lymph node ultrasound show?
Lymph nodes are organs located in different parts of the body and performing important functions. In essence, the lymph nodes are peculiar "junction stations" on an extensive network of lymphatic vessels. The body has a network of lymphatic vessels (like blood vessels), which permeate all organs and tissues, without exception, and through which lymph (intercellular fluid) circulates. And on certain points of these lymph vessels and lymph nodes are located, performing very important functions.
Thus, lymphocyte maturation occurs in the lymph nodes – cells that recognize and destroy pathogenic microbes and cancer cells. That is, the lymph nodes are part of the body’s immune system and provide normal immunity. In addition, the lymph nodes create a natural barrier to the penetration into the tissues of various foreign substances, retaining them in their structures. Also, the lymph nodes maintain a normal amount of extracellular fluid (lymph) and are involved in metabolism and digestion. Thus, it is obvious that lymph nodes produce "cleansing" lymph and, thereby, ensure the normal composition of the extracellular fluid, prevent the infection of organs and tissues and the spread of cancer cells.
In the human body there are about 150 groups of lymph nodes located in various organs and tissues, which create a barrier for penetration of the pathogenic microbes, toxic substances and cancer cells into nearby organs. Moreover, each group of lymph nodes filters the extracellular fluid circulating in the nearby organs and tissues, and therefore ensures, so to speak, the well-being of a particular local area of the body.
Ultrasound of the lymph nodes allows you to assess their number, location (localization), shape, size, structure, texture, mobility, contours, changes in blood flow, echo and the ratio of nodes with surrounding organs and tissues (cohesion, etc.). All of these characteristics, determined by ultrasound, can detect the presence and nature of lymphadenopathy (abnormal condition and size of nodes), its possible causes (inflammation, infectious disease, connective tissue pathology, autoimmune processes, pathology of the blood system, metastasis of malignant tumors, etc. .). Thus, given the fact that the term lymphadenopathy is usually understood as an abnormal condition of the lymph nodes, then an ultrasound helps to clarify the nature of lymphadenopathy and, accordingly, to make the correct diagnosis in one or another doubtful case. Since lymphadenopathy is usually observed on the background of a specific pathology, ultrasound of the lymph nodes is usually performed in conjunction with ultrasound of the diseased organ or tissue.
Ultrasound of the lymph nodes allows you to detect or clarify the presence of the following pathological conditions:
- Bacterial infections (for example, brucellosis, tularemia, tuberculosis, syphilis, furunculosis, chlamydia, disease "cat scratch", otitis, bronchitis, laryngitis and other infectious-inflammatory processes of various organs caused by staphylococci, streptococci, etc.)
- Viral infections (infectious mononucleosis, cytomegalovirus infection, herpes, HIV / AIDS, rubella, measles, hepatitis, etc.)
- Protozoal infections (toxoplasmosis, malaria, trichomoniasis, etc.)
- Fungal infections (histoplasmosis, coccidiomycosis, aspergillosis, etc.)
- Autoimmune and immunodeficient diseases (rheumatoid arthritis, systemic lupus erythematosus, serum sickness, lymphocyte adhesion deficiency, chronic granulomatous disease, etc.)
- Conditions after vaccination (vaccinations)
- Malignant tumors and metastases (lymphoma, leukemia, metastases of neuroblastoma, rhabdomyosarcoma, thyroid, breast, nasopharyngeal tissues, etc.)
- Histiocytosis (Langerhans cell histiocytosis, Rosi-Dorfman disease, hemophagocytic syndrome, etc.)
- Taking certain medicines (Allopurinol, Isoniazid, anticonvulsants)
- Other diseases (Niemann-Pick’s disease, Gaucher’s disease, sarcoidosis, Kawasaki’s disease, Castleman’s disease, Kikuchi’s disease, etc.).
The accuracy of ultrasound in the diagnosis of lymphadenopathy is from 30 to 100%, and it depends on the location of the lymph nodes, the experience of the doctor and the quality of the ultrasound scanner. Naturally, the most accurate ultrasound results are obtained when examining lymph nodes located close to the skin surface (for example, parotid, axillary, etc.). In the study of lymph nodes located in body cavities (for example, intraperitoneal, intrathoracic, etc.), the accuracy of ultrasound is less high, but, however, higher than the method of palpation (palpation).
What lymph nodes can be examined using ultrasound?
Depending on which pathological process and in which organ or tissue is suspected, the doctor may prescribe an ultrasound of various groups of lymph nodes. Most often, an ultrasound of the lymph nodes is prescribed by the lesion, but a study can also be conducted on the nodes on the opposite side of the body.
Currently, ultrasound of the following groups of lymph nodes is performed:
one. Internal lymph nodes located in body cavities near internal organs:
- Intra-abdominal lymph nodes located in the gates of the liver, spleen, intestinal mesentery, etc.
- Retroperitoneal lymph nodes located in the abdominal cavity but not covered with peritoneum (renal lymph nodes)
- Pelvic lymph nodes located in the genital and urinary organs
- Mediastinal lymph nodes located in the chest.
2 Peripheral lymph nodes located in the subcutaneous tissue in the head, neck, breast, arms and legs:
- Lymph nodes of the head and neck (occipital, parotid, chin, mandibular, anterior, posterior, supraclavicular, subclavian)
- Lymph nodes of the upper limb (armpit, elbow)
- Lymph nodes of the lower extremity (inguinal, popliteal)
- Lymph nodes of the mammary glands.
The most commonly prescribed ultrasound of any one group of lymph nodes, for example, cervical, inguinal, intra-abdominal, etc. And for the ultrasound is selected that group of lymph nodes, which is closest to the affected organ. For example, in chronic inflammatory processes in the eyes or nasopharynx, the doctor prescribes an ultrasound of the lymph nodes of the head and neck.
If the course of the disease or the patient’s condition is severe, the doctor may prescribe an ultrasound of several groups of lymph nodes at once. But in such cases, as a rule, ultrasound of neighboring groups of nodes, for example, cervical and axillary or inguinal and popliteal, etc., is performed.
Finally, if a systemic disease is suspected, a doctor may prescribe an ultrasound of all groups of lymph nodes, but in practice this situation rarely occurs.
Indications for ultrasound of the lymph nodes
Since the doctor can prescribe an ultrasound of any individual groups of lymph nodes, depending on the pathology he suspects, there are both general and private indications for the examination. Under the general indications for ultrasound of the lymph nodes understand such symptoms, conditions or suspicions for which a study of any one or several groups of nodes is indicated. And under private indications imply such symptoms and conditions for which a study of a specific group of lymph nodes is indicated. Of course, the difference between general and frequent indications for ultrasound of the lymph nodes is very conditional and is determined mainly by the suspicion of a specific pathology.
The general indications for the production of ultrasound of the lymph nodes of a particular location include the following:
- Soreness, increase, excessive mobility or compaction during palpation (palpation) of lymph nodes
- Swelling, redness or increase in skin temperature (hot to the touch) in the area of the lymph nodes
- Discomfort when making movements, felt in the area of the lymph nodes (for example, when swallowing, when walking, when moving by hand, etc.)
- Forced position of a part of the body due to pain in the area of the lymph nodes (for example, bowed head, arm pressed to the body, etc.)
- Headaches, general weakness and spleen present over a long period of time
- Unreasonable sleep disturbances, insomnia or drowsiness
- Poor appetite
- The presence of long-term current infectious or inflammatory processes in the body in a particular organ (for example, otitis, laryngitis, tonsillitis, adnexitis, thrombophlebitis, conjunctivitis, hepatitis, etc.)
- Suspected systemic diseases of the connective tissue or autoimmune processes (pain in the joints and muscles, rash on the skin, etc.)
- Deformation of the jaw bones
- Pain in the abdomen, chest or neck
- The presence or suspicion of tumors of different localization.
If there are general indications, the doctor chooses which lymph nodes to investigate based on the localization of the pathological process. For example, if a person suffers from otitis, an ultrasound scan of the cervical lymph nodes is prescribed, if there is thrombophlebitis or a trophic ulcer on the leg, then an ultrasound scan of the inguinal and popliteal lymph nodes, etc.
Ultrasound of the lymph nodes in the head and neck is usually targeted precisely in the following conditions:
- Gum tissue overgrowth
- Bleeding gums
- Deformation of the jaw and face
- Chronic ENT Organs
- Acute infectious-inflammatory processes occurring with high fever, cough, runny nose, difficulty in swallowing, pain in the mouth, etc.
- Enlarged lymph nodes, the size of which has not decreased within two weeks after suffering an acute illness (for example, measles, rubella, influenza, etc.)
- The presence or suspicion of tuberculosis, syphilis, leprosy
- The presence or suspicion of a tumor or metastases in the lymph nodes (lymphosarcoma, lymphoma, lymphoma)
- The presence of tumors of the lungs, larynx, trachea, throat, tongue or thyroid.
Ultrasonography of the lymph nodes of the upper limb (axillary and ulnar) is performed in the following cases:
- Suspected tumors of the breast or chest organs (lungs, heart, pleura, diaphragm, etc.)
- In order to control after breast surgery
- Signs of a malignant tumor in any organ or HIV infection.
Ultrasonography of the lymph nodes of the lower extremity (inguinal, popliteal) is aimed in the following cases:
- The presence or suspicion of sexually transmitted infections (gonorrhea, syphilis, chlamydia, trichomoniasis, candidiasis, etc.)
- Any inflammatory diseases of the pelvic organs and urinary system
- Infectious or inflammatory processes localized to the lower limbs (for example, thrombophlebitis, boils, etc.)
- HIV infection
- The presence or suspicion of tumors of the pelvic organs or urinary system.
Sighting ultrasound of the internal lymph nodes (abdominal and chest) is usually performed in order to identify metastases or malignant tumors in them.
In general, we can say that most of the ultrasound of the lymph nodes is assigned to detect metastases or tumors, since oncological pathologies most often provoke changes in the normal structure and size of the lymph nodes and, of course, are the most formidable pathologies possible.
Contraindications for ultrasound of the lymph nodes
If it is necessary to do an ultrasound of the internal lymph nodes, then it is advisable to perform it 3 to 5 days after or before endoscopic examinations (gastroscopy, x-ray of the stomach or intestines with contrast, etc.) and laparoscopic operations.
Preparation for ultrasound of the lymph nodes
If it is necessary to perform an ultrasound of the peripheral lymph nodes (cervical, axillary, knee, elbow, inguinal, etc.), then no special training is required. An ultrasound scan can be received any day at a convenient time (as agreed with the doctor). However, you need to know that ultrasound of the lymph nodes in the armpit should be performed by women in the first half of the menstrual cycle, and for men at any convenient time. It should also be remembered that if there is abundant hair on the area of the skin in the area of the lymph nodes being examined, then on the eve of the ultrasound the hair should be shaved to prevent interference on the monitor screen.
If the inguinal lymph nodes are examined, then a venereologist should be visited (women can also see a gynecologist and men’s a urologist) to exclude a sexually transmitted disease that can cause an abnormal condition of the inguinal lymph nodes.
If it is necessary to conduct an ultrasound of the internal lymph nodes (small pelvis, retroperitoneal, intra-abdominal, intrathoracic, etc.), then you should prepare for it. Preparation consists of following a diet for two to three days before the study, which will eliminate excessive gas formation in the intestines and bloating. Such a diet involves the exclusion from the diet of foods that cause strong flatulence in the intestines, such as soda, nuts, pasta, mustard, honey, fatty fish and meat, alcoholic beverages, dairy products, vegetables with coarse fiber (cabbage, radish, onions , garlic, bell pepper, etc.), fruits (melon, bananas, sweet apples, etc.), black bread, bran bread or whole grains, legumes (peas, beans, lentils, etc.), as well as any other high fiber foods. In addition, on the eve of the study it is necessary to empty the intestines so that its contents do not interfere with a qualitative review of the details of the lymph nodes. To empty the intestines on the day of the study put an enema or use glycerin suppositories.
Ultrasonography of the internal lymph nodes should be carried out after an 8–10 hour fast (at least after 6 hours), so if the study is scheduled for the morning hours, you should restrict yourself to a light dinner no later than 24-00 hours before. In the morning of the study, in order not to suffer from hunger, you should have breakfast with dried white bread and sweet tea. Until the scheduled ultrasound time has come, it is allowed to eat dried white bread, boiled eggs and drink sweet tea or non-carbonated water. If a person does not tolerate hunger, then it is recommended to take breakfast with you to a medical institution, which can be eaten immediately after the completion of the ultrasound.
For ultrasound of the lymph nodes with you, you need to take clean wipes, toilet paper or a towel to the medical facility to wipe the gel from the skin after the test, which is used to improve the quality of the image on the ultrasound scanner monitor. You should also wear comfortable clothes, not constraining movements and allowing to expose the required area of the skin.
Before performing an ultrasound of the lymph nodes, it is not necessary to cancel the medication, but you should definitely inform the doctor about which drugs are being taken. After all, taking the following drugs can lead to an increase in lymph nodes:
- Sulfanilamide drugs (Biseptol, Groseptol, Ftalazol, Streptocid, etc.)
- Cephalosporin antibiotics (Cefalexin, Ceftriaxone, Cefuroxime, etc.).
Preparation for ultrasound of the lymph nodes in children is not as long and difficult as in adults. Children should not be given to drink and eat for three hours before the ultrasound, if, of course, they are able to normally endure such a period of abstinence from food and drink.
How is the ultrasound of the lymph nodes?
Ultrasound of the lymph nodes is carried out in a separate specially equipped room with blinds or thick curtains on the windows. For the production of research, it is necessary to remove clothes and all decorations from the part of the body in which the lymph nodes are located, and then sit on the couch in the pose indicated by the doctor. For the production of ultrasound of the lymph nodes of the neck, the doctor usually asks to lie down on his back and tilt his head back slightly, the axillary nodes are examined in a sitting or lying posture with his arm thrown over his head, etc.
When the required posture is adopted, the doctor applies a special gel to the skin that facilitates the sliding of the sensor and improves the quality of the image obtained on the monitor. Next, the doctor drives the abdomen sensor in different directions with gentle pressure, obtaining an image of the lymph nodes on the monitor from various angles, which allows a detailed assessment of the structure, size, shape, texture and other parameters of the organs. Depending on which lymph nodes are being examined, the doctor may ask to take a deep breath or exhale, or hold your breath, which is necessary for a detailed assessment of the condition of the nodes. Usually, during inhalation, exhalation, and breath-holding, intra-abdominal, retroperitoneal, or intrathoracic lymph nodes are examined, but peripheral nodes are usually studied against the background of normal calm breathing.
After the measurement and evaluation of the structure of all the necessary parameters of the lymph nodes, the doctor completes the process of ultrasound and describes in detail the result in the form of a written opinion, which is given to the patient.
The duration of ultrasound of the lymph nodes of one group is usually 10 to 20 minutes. The more lymph nodes are examined – the longer the procedure lasts, but since it is painless, safe and does not cause discomfort, even a relatively long examination is easily tolerated.
Ultrasound of the lymph nodes: indications of how the procedure is carried out, which lymph nodes are usually examined – video
Ultrasound of lymph nodes is normal
Lymph node ultrasound scans
The size of the lymph nodes on ultrasound
Normal lymph node size varies greatly depending on age, constitution, profession, living conditions, and other factors. For example, in children and adolescents, the lymph nodes are always larger than in adults, due to their constant stress due to "dating" with unknown microbes. In addition, in elderly people, the lymph nodes can also be quite large, due, on the one hand, to the fusion of several small nodes into one node, and, on the other hand, as a result of the degeneration of nodes into adipose tissue. In addition, the size of the lymph nodes can vary significantly depending on their location.
However, for adults, the size of the lymph nodes between 10 and 15 mm is considered normal. For children and the elderly, the normal knot size can be up to 35 mm. Important is the ratio of the length and thickness of the nodes, which normally should be less than 2.
Explanation of ultrasound of the lymph nodes
Ultrasound picture, characteristic of different pathologies of lymph nodes
So, it is conditionally possible to distinguish three groups of pathological changes that can be registered in the lymph nodes with the help of the ultrasound method – lymphadenopathy, lymphadenitis and tumor lesion of the node.
Lymphadenitis is an inflammatory process in the tissue of the lymph node, which can be caused by an infectious disease, an autoimmune process, or a reaction to an already remote infectious focus.
Tumor lesion of a node is the presence in the tissues of an organ of cancer cells of different structure and origin. Therefore, a tumor lesion can be either a neoplasm at the site itself or metastases from nearby organs.
Lymphadenopathy is an enlargement of the lymph nodes of an unknown nature, when it is impossible to understand whether lymphadenitis occurs or a tumor lesion occurs. Therefore, the term lymphadenopathy is rarely used and only in unclear cases.
Lymphadenitis and tumor lesions of the lymph nodes are characterized by certain ultrasound signs, which allow them to be identified. Below we consider exactly which ultrasound characteristics are inherent in both pathological processes in the lymph node.
Lymphadenitis caused by an infectious disease or a vaccination reaction is characterized by a uniform increase in the size of the lymph nodes, that is, the length and thickness of the nodes increase. And the ratio of the length to the thickness of the nodes remains the same as normal, that is, less than 2. Revealed increased vascularization – a large number of normal bloodless, convoluted blood vessels, which the doctor describes as an increase in vascular pattern. Also, the doctor for lymphadenitis can fix the tension, swelling, or splitting of the lymph node capsule, which is usually indicated as thickening of the capsule. The capsule is often soldered to the surrounding tissues or organs. In addition, the characteristic expansion of the cortical zone, the expansion of the gate. In some cases, single anechoic structures similar to cysts are seen inside the nodes.
If there is hyperplasia due to an autoimmune process removed by an infectious focus, the nodes are usually enlarged to 35×15 mm in the inguinal zone and up to 25×10 mm elsewhere. The nodes themselves are often oval, their contours are clear and even, the structure of the medulla is hyperechoic, there is a thin hypoechoic rim of the cortex. In some cases, with sluggish lymphadenitis, the nodes are hypoechoic, oval or round, with a hyperechoic center. Vessels with sluggish lymphadenitis are visible not only in the gate area, but also in an orderly state along the capsule to the side opposite to the gate.
Lymph node metastases characterized by a change in their shape, size, echogenicity and structure. So, there is an increase in size due to the thickness, as a result of which the nodes become round or irregular in shape, with uneven and fuzzy contours. The closer the shape of the node to the round, the higher the likelihood of metastases in it. The node structure becomes more homogeneous, hypoechoic or anechoic (less often heterogeneous hyperechoic), its pattern is erased, the cortical layer is enlarged, and numerous anechoic regions are determined in the medulla and cortical substance. In addition, the vascular pattern is enhanced, and the vessels are crimped and deformed. If the metastases germinate into the surrounding tissues, the lymph nodes of one group are soldered and form conglomerates.
Malignant lymph node tumors. On ultrasound, the central part of the lymph node is missing or thinned, while the remaining parts are hypoechoic or heterogeneous with alternating hypoechoic and hyperechoic areas. The lymph nodes themselves are enlarged, their contours uneven and indistinct, elements can be seen sprouting into the surrounding tissues.
Enlarged lymph nodes. An increase in the size of the lymph nodes is observed in any variant of the pathology, that is, with lymphadenitis, with lymphadenopathy, and with tumor damage. Therefore, in order to understand why lymph nodes are enlarged, their contours and structure should be evaluated.
What diseases can be detected by ultrasound of the lymph nodes of different localization?
Ultrasound of the lymph nodes of the neck. If the ultrasound results reveal an abnormal condition of the anterior cervical lymph nodes, then this may indicate pharyngitis, rubella, a boil around the neck, tonsillitis, or other infectious and inflammatory diseases of the upper respiratory tract. If the ultrasound results reveal abnormalities in the posterior cervical lymph nodes, then this indicates an infection of the upper respiratory tract, ulcers or boils on the neck, toxoplasmosis, Rozai-Dorfman disease, Kawasaki disease, mononucleosis-like syndrome, tuberculosis, lymphoma, lymphoma, lymphoma, lymphoma, lymphoma, and lymphomas, lymphoma, and lymphomas, lymphoma, and lymphomas. .
Ultrasound submandibular lymph nodes. If the ultrasound results reveal abnormalities in the state of the submandibular lymph nodes, then this indicates infectious diseases of the oral cavity (stomatitis, etc.), ear (otitis, etc.), sinuses (sinusitis), nasopharynx (tonsillitis, pharyngitis), head and neck (furuncles, abscesses, etc.).
Ultrasound of the subclavian and supraclavicular lymph nodes. The abnormal condition of the subclavian and supraclavicular lymph nodes may indicate tumors in the chest or mediastinum, lymphomas, cancer of the stomach and organs of the retroperitoneal space (kidneys, etc.), as well as bacterial and fungal infections of the organs of the chest and abdominal cavity.
Ultrasound of the occipital lymph nodes. Their abnormal condition may indicate ringworm (trichophytosis or microsporia), lice (lice), seborrheic dermatitis, rubella, HIV infection, head and neck tumors, or infected wounds to the head.
Ultrasound of the mastoid lymph nodes. The abnormal condition of these lymph nodes may indicate otitis, mastoiditis, rubella, diseases of the scalp (infectious and inflammatory).
Ultrasound of the parotid lymph nodes. Abnormal condition of these lymph nodes may indicate conjunctivitis, disease "cat scratch", infectious processes in the eye area, as well as about oklandlandulyarnogo Parino syndrome (complications of bartonellosis and tularemia).
Ultrasound of submental lymph nodes. The abnormal condition of these lymph nodes indicates toxoplasmosis, infections caused by Epstein-Barr virus and cytomegalovirus, as well as infectious and inflammatory processes in the lips, gums, tongue, skin of the cheeks and floor of the mouth.
Ultrasound of the axillary lymph nodes. The abnormal state of these lymph nodes indicates bartonellosis, breast tumors, lymphoma, melanoma, the presence of a silicone graft in the breast, as well as infectious and inflammatory processes in the hands, chest and breast area.
Ultrasound of the ulnar lymph nodes. The abnormal condition of the nodes of this localization indicates sarcoidosis, tularemia, secondary syphilis, lymphoma, infectious and inflammatory processes in the third, fourth and fifth fingers, hand and outer surface of the forearm.
Ultrasonography of the inguinal lymph nodes and small pelvic lymph nodes. The abnormal condition of the lymph nodes of this location indicates infectious and inflammatory diseases of the legs, feet, urinary organs and genitals, as well as herpes, gonorrhea, syphilis, chancroid, venereal granulomas, lymphoma, tumors of the external genital organs and pelvic organs.
Ultrasound of the popliteal lymph nodes. The abnormal condition of the nodes of this site indicates infectious and inflammatory diseases of the feet and legs.
Ultrasound of the lymph nodes in the abdominal cavity. The abnormal state of the nodes of this localization usually indicates malignant tumors and mesenteric adenitis.
Ultrasound of the lymph nodes in children
Ultrasound of the lymph nodes in children do the same and for the same indications as adults. The value of the indicators determined by the doctor according to the results of ultrasound in children is exactly the same as in adults. The ultrasound procedure is safe and does not cause discomfort, so if the child needs to undergo such an examination, then you can take him to the doctor without fear and special preliminary psychological preparation.
Where to do ultrasound of the lymph nodes?
Price ultrasound lymph nodes
Currently, in the public and private medical centers, the cost of ultrasound of the lymph nodes of one group ranges from 300 to 1,800 rubles.
Enlarged lymph nodes in children: the norm or pathology – video
Author: Nasedkina A.K. Specialist in conducting research on biomedical problems.