Unfortunately with age we are not younger. One of the age manifestations is osteoporosis (this condition can also occur at a young age). With age, bones become less elastic and durable – this is due to structural, biochemical, and biological changes in the metabolism of calcium, fluorine, and magnesium (the mineral components of bone tissue). As a rule, after 35 years, there is a gradual loss of calcium in the bone tissue. The central place in bone mineralization is occupied by calcium and magnesium metabolic processes. Constantly the amount of magnesium and calcium in the blood should be proportional. Therefore, to prevent the loss of calcium by the body, magnesium and vitamin B6 are necessary.
Osteoporosis affects all the bones of the skeleton, but the most intense degeneration of bone tissue occurs in the bones of the thigh, forearm and vertebrae. Even a minor injury can cause a fracture. Vertebral fractures can occur in the absence of external influence and occur under the influence of the body’s own gravity. Osteoporosis is the most common among older women – at the age of 60, every fourth person suffers from this disease. In men, osteoporosis is observed four times less frequently. It’s all about the hormonal status – with menopause, estrogen production decreases. Estrogens are antagonists (a hormone with the opposite effect) of parathyroid hormone (parathyroid hormone, which stimulates an increase in the concentration of calcium in the blood due to the “washing out” of calcium from the bones). Let us add to osteoporosis, which usually develops towards advanced age, increased body mass and, as a result, a predisposition to spontaneous or traumatic fractures.
Bone is an anatomical organ that has a rather complex anatomical structure. In contrast to the usual notion of bones as inanimate matter, in fact, bone tissue is actively involved in metabolic processes – growth and resorption (dissolution) constantly occur in it, it participates in the regulation of electrolyte balance, the periosteum is richly innervated and has a good blood supply, and bone tissue the brain is a forge of red blood cells and immune cells.
The bone anatomy is represented by the following structural elements:
- bone tissue – has 2 structural varieties – spongy and lamellar (compact substance). Both types of bone tissue are in all bones of the skeleton.
- periosteum – is a bone wrapper (except articular surfaces). Provides bone growth in breadth, blood supply and innervation.
- bone marrow – located in the inner part of the bone (the formation of erythrocytes and immune cells occurs in it).
- vessels and nerves – provide sensitive innervation and blood supply to the bone.
Diagnosis of osteoporosis
• biochemical blood test for osteocalcin
• Radiograph (not informative in the early stages of osteoporosis – the loss of less than 25/30% of bone tissue in the radiograph is not detected).
• Osedonsonitometry (the most informative and reliable method)
Osteodensitometry as a method of choice in the diagnosis of osteoporosis
Osteodensitometry is a special X-ray method for studying the bone density of the bone skeleton as a whole, and its individual sections.
A densitometer is an apparatus that uses X-rays for imagery. The special design of the device allows it to produce clearer images of projected rays and to achieve a higher resolution.
How is a densitometric study?
At the reception measured the height and weight of the patient. The study itself is performed when the patient is lying down and takes several minutes. The bone mineral density is determined in the number of grams of calcium per square centimeter of cross-section of the bone (in three-dimensional measurement per 1 cubic centimeter). Standardized diagnosis of osteoporosis includes measurement of the mineral density of the bones of the thigh and lumbar spine.
Who is recommended to conduct densitometry?
First of all, those at risk:
- women over 40
- men over 55 years old
- patients with back pain, muscle pain
- with paradont (gum disease)
- women of any age after ovarian removal
- in diseases of the kidneys, liver, gastrointestinal tract
- with endocrinological diseases
- Frequent limb fractures (due to minor traumatic fikotor)
- Fracture of the neck of the femur (often without traumatic effects)
- Spinal fractures (with or without traumatic exposure)